Jaundice in children

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Jaundice in children Microchapters

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differential Diagnosis

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Treatment

Prevention

WikiDoc Resources for Jaundice in children

Articles

Most recent articles on Jaundice in children

Most cited articles on Jaundice in children

Review articles on Jaundice in children

Articles on Jaundice in children in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Jaundice in children

Images of Jaundice in children

Photos of Jaundice in children

Podcasts & MP3s on Jaundice in children

Videos on Jaundice in children

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Jaundice in children

Bandolier on Jaundice in children

TRIP on Jaundice in children

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Jaundice in children at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Jaundice in children

Clinical Trials on Jaundice in children at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Jaundice in children

NICE Guidance on Jaundice in children

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Jaundice in children

CDC on Jaundice in children

Books

Books on Jaundice in children

News

Jaundice in children in the news

Be alerted to news on Jaundice in children

News trends on Jaundice in children

Commentary

Blogs on Jaundice in children

Definitions

Definitions of Jaundice in children

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Jaundice in children

Discussion groups on Jaundice in children

Patient Handouts on Jaundice in children

Directions to Hospitals Treating Jaundice in children

Risk calculators and risk factors for Jaundice in children

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Jaundice in children

Causes & Risk Factors for Jaundice in children

Diagnostic studies for Jaundice in children

Treatment of Jaundice in children

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Jaundice in children

International

Jaundice in children en Espanol

Jaundice in children en Francais

Business

Jaundice in children in the Marketplace

Patents on Jaundice in children

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Jaundice in children

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ifeoma Anaya, M.D.[2]

Synonyms and Keywords: Jaundice in kids, hyperbilirubinemia

Overview

The word 'Jaundice' is derived from the French word for yellow, which is jaune. Jaundice may be classified into two broad categories based on its time of onset and cause such as physiologic and pathologic jaundice. Jaundice is caused by high concentrations of bilirubin in the bloodstream, a condition known as hyperbilirubinemia. Hyperbilirubinemia can result from abnormalities in the metabolism of bilirubin which could occur at any stage from its production, which is a result of the excessive breakdown of red blood cells, defects in its hepatic metabolism, and its post hepatic transport. Pathologic causes of jaundice can be classified into causes of conjugated and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Differentials for jaundice are very limited however, some skin discolorations in healthy individuals can look like jaundice in certain circumstances. The prevalence of jaundice varies among patient populations. In infants born at term, 60% will develop jaundice in their first-week of life, which rises to 80% in preterms. Common risk factors in the development of jaundice in children are a family history of jaundice, family history of a child born with jaundice, hyperthyroidism in the mother, medication use by the mother, etc. It is essential for every clinician to note that jaundice is not always a benign condition therefore, extensive investigation of a child with jaundice is necessary to prevent severe complications. Symptoms of jaundice in children may include the yellowish discoloration of skin, sclera, and mucous membrane. A useful technique in assessing the severity of jaundice is by using the principle of skin discoloration progressing in a cephalo-caudal direction in newborns. Laboratory findings include measuring the serum bilirubin from a blood sample. The total and conjugated portions are measured and the unconjugated fraction is measured by subtracting the conjugated fraction from the total. Echocardiography can detect cardiac abnormalities in patients with Alagille syndrome and biliary atresia. Ultrasonography of the abdomen is used to screen for biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, or cholestatic workup in the setting of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Treatment options include phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and exchange transfusion. Pharmacological options are also there. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy or the definitive treatment for most obstructive causes of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Several etiologies may be generally difficult to prevent however, the prevention of complications from jaundice is equally crucial. Parents should be educated on how to recognize jaundice very early in a neonate so as to present promptly for the management.

Historical Perspective

Classification

Classification of Jaundice
Type of Jaundice Details
Physiologic jaundice
Pathological jaundice[1]

Pathophysiology

Causes

 
 
 
 
 
 
Causes of jaundice in children
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Physiologic
 
 
 
Pathologic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
 
 
 
Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hemolytic
 
 
 
Non-hemolytic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
•Rh incompatibility
ABO incompatibility
Hemoglobinopathies (Thalassemia)
•Hematomas
Polycythemia
Sepsis
 
 
 
Crigler-Najjar syndrome I and II
Gilbert syndrome
Breast milk jaundice
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Infectious
 
Obstructive
 
Drugs
 
Genetic/Metabolic
 
Storage disorders
 
Endocirnopathies
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Viral
Bacterial
Parasitic
 
Biliary atresia
Choledochal cyst
•Inspissated bile syndrome
Neonatal sclerosing cholangitis
Congenital hepatic fibrosis
•Intrinsic/extrinsic mass
 
Ceftriaxone
Isoniazid
Erythromycin
Rifampin
Sulfa drugs
Parenteral nutrition
Methotrexate
 
Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
Alagille syndrome
Cystic fibrosis
Tyrosinemia
Galactosemia
Rotor syndrome
Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 21
 
Gaucher's Disease
•Niemann-pick Disease
Glycogen storage diseases
Mucolipidoses
 
Hypopituitarism
Hypothyroidism
•McCune Albright syndrome
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Differentiating jaundice in children from other diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Age

Gender

Race

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Prevention

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "StatPearls". 2020. PMID 30422525.
  2. Mittendorf R, Williams MA (1991). "Rho(D) immunoglobulin (RhoGAM): how it came into being". Obstet Gynecol. 77 (2): 301–3. doi:10.1097/00006250-199102000-00029. PMID 1846439.
  3. Weiss EM, Zimmerman SS (2013). "A tale of two hospitals: the evolution of phototherapy treatment for neonatal jaundice". Pediatrics. 131 (6): 1032–4. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3651. PMID 23650299.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 "StatPearls". 2020. PMID 31334972.
  5. Mishra S, Agarwal R, Deorari AK, Paul VK (2008). "Jaundice in the newborns". Indian J Pediatr. 75 (2): 157–63. doi:10.1007/s12098-008-0024-7. PMID 18334797.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Chee YY, Chung PH, Wong RM, Wong KK (2018). "Jaundice in infants and children: causes, diagnosis, and management". Hong Kong Med J. 24 (3): 285–292. doi:10.12809/hkmj187245. PMID 29807950.
  7. Mojtahedi SY, Izadi A, Seirafi G, Khedmat L, Tavakolizadeh R (2018). "Risk Factors Associated with Neonatal Jaundice: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran". Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 6 (8): 1387–1393. doi:10.3889/oamjms.2018.319. PMC 6108787. PMID 30159062.
  8. Kelly DA, Davenport M (2007). "Current management of biliary atresia". Arch Dis Child. 92 (12): 1132–5. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.101451. PMC 2066090. PMID 17878208.