Epididymoorchitis risk factors
Epididymoorchitis risk factors On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Epididymoorchitis risk factors
Risk factors for epididymoorchitis include sexual activity and sexually transmitted diseases, surgery or instrumentation of the bladder, as well as anatomic abnormalities of the urinary tract and obstruction to the normal flow of urine.
Risk factors for epididymoorchitis include:
- Sexual activity and infection with sexually transmitted diseases, such as C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhea
- Males who have sex with males (MSM)
- HIV is a risk factor to epididymoorchitis infections caused by viruses and fungi
- Strenuous physical activity
- Riding motorcycles/bicycles
- Prolonged periods of inactivity and sitting
- Recent urinary tract surgery or instrumentation, such as cystoscopy and bladder catheterization
- Anatomic abnormalities of the urinary tract, such as prostatic obstruction in older men (e.g., benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic cancer, urethral strictures) and posterior urethral valves or meatal stenosis in young, prepubertal boys
- Mumps infection is a risk factor for isolated mumps orchitis infection
- Trojian TH, Lishnak TS, Heiman D (2009). "Epididymitis and orchitis: an overview". Am Fam Physician. 79 (7): 583–7. PMID 19378875.
- Kaver I, Matzkin H, Braf ZF (1990). "Epididymo-orchitis: a retrospective study of 121 patients". J Fam Pract. 30 (5): 548–52. PMID 2332745.
- Kadish HA, Bolte RG (1998). "A retrospective review of pediatric patients with epididymitis, testicular torsion, and torsion of testicular appendages". Pediatrics. 102 (1 Pt 1): 73–6. PMID 9651416.
- Stewart A, Ubee SS, Davies H (2011). "Epididymo-orchitis". BMJ. 342: d1543. PMID 21490048.
- Tracy CR, Steers WD, Costabile R (2008). "Diagnosis and management of epididymitis". Urol. Clin. North Am. 35 (1): 101–8, vii. doi:10.1016/j.ucl.2007.09.013. PMID 18061028.