Amenorrhea ultrasound

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Amenorrhea Microchapters


Patient Information

Primary amenorrhea
Secondary amenorrhea


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Amenorrhea from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan


Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

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Echo & Ultrasound
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Eiman Ghaffarpasand, M.D. [2]


There are no echocardiography findings associated with amenorrhea. However, an echocardiography may be helpful in the diagnosis of the diseases that can cause amenorrhea, such as Turner syndrome. Findings on an echocardiography suggestive of Turner syndrome include bicuspid aortic valve, elongation of transverse aortic arch, coarctation of aorta, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR). There are no ultrasound findings associated with amenorrhea. However, an ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of the diseases that can cause amenorrhea, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian insufficiency, androgen insensitivity syndrome, 17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency, and also anatomic genital defects.


Continuous Doppler echocardiography showing a peak systolic gradient of 69 mmHg and a low grade anterograde diastolic flow in the descending thoracic aorta (Saw Tooth), highly specific for significant aortic obstruction, before stent placement - Via[1]


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome - Case courtesy of Dr J. Ray Ballinger, Via[3]
Polycystic ovary syndrome, Via[4]

Premature ovarian insufficiency

Androgen insensitivity syndrome, left testis in inguinal canal - Case courtesy of Dr Maulik S Patel, Via[8]
Transverse vaginal septum, lead to hydrocolpos - Case courtesy of Dr G Balachandran, Via[9]

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency

Hematometrocolpos, vagina filled with hematoma - Case courtesy of Dr Kewal Arunkumar Mistry, Via[12]
Asherman's syndrome, adhesion band in uterus cavity - Case courtesy of Dr Maulik S Patel, Via[13]

Anatomic genital defects


  1. From the case <"">
  2. Kim HK, Gottliebson W, Hor K, Backeljauw P, Gutmark-Little I, Salisbury SR, Racadio JM, Helton-Skally K, Fleck R (2011). "Cardiovascular anomalies in Turner syndrome: spectrum, prevalence, and cardiac MRI findings in a pediatric and young adult population". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196 (2): 454–60. doi:10.2214/AJR.10.4973. PMID 21257900.
  3. From the case <"">rID: 23638
  4. From the case <"">rID: 11803
  5. 5.0 5.1 Balen AH, Laven JS, Tan SL, Dewailly D (2003). "Ultrasound assessment of the polycystic ovary: international consensus definitions". Hum. Reprod. Update. 9 (6): 505–14. PMID 14714587.
  6. Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR (2013). "Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume". Hum. Reprod. 28 (5): 1361–8. doi:10.1093/humrep/det062. PMID 23503943.
  7. Beck-Peccoz P, Persani L (2006). "Premature ovarian failure". Orphanet J Rare Dis. 1: 9. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-1-9. PMC 1502130. PMID 16722528.
  8. From the case < "">rID: 15786
  9. From the case <"">rID: 5663
  10. Tank, Jay; Knoll, Abraham; Gilet, Anthony; Kim, Susanne (2015). "Imaging characteristics of androgen insensitivity syndrome". Clinical Imaging. 39 (4): 707–710. doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2015.02.002. ISSN 0899-7071.
  11. Malcolm PN, Wright DJ, Edmonds CJ (1992). "Deficiency of 17 alpha-hydroxylase associated with absent gonads". Postgrad Med J. 68 (795): 59–61. PMC 2399301. PMID 1561195.
  12. From the case <"">rID: 35073
  13. From the case <"">rID: 14540
  14. Lardenoije C, Aardenburg R, Mertens H (2009). "Imperforate hymen: a cause of abdominal pain in female adolescents". BMJ Case Rep. 2009. doi:10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0722. PMC 3029536. PMID 21686660.
  15. Mohammed Abd Elgyoum, Ala (2016). "Case Report Diagnosing of Imperforate Hymen by Ultrasound". International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 4 (3): 27. doi:10.11648/j.ijbmr.20160403.13. ISSN 2330-7560.
  16. Knopman J, Copperman AB (2007). "Value of 3D ultrasound in the management of suspected Asherman's syndrome". J Reprod Med. 52 (11): 1016–22. PMID 18161399.
  17. Meyer WR, McCoy MC, Fritz MA (1995). "Combined abdominal-perineal sonography to assist in diagnosis of transverse vaginal septum". Obstet Gynecol. 85 (5 Pt 2): 882–4. PMID 7724147.


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