Amenorrhea natural history, complications and prognosis

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Amenorrhea Microchapters


Patient Information

Primary amenorrhea
Secondary amenorrhea


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Amenorrhea from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan


Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Eiman Ghaffarpasand, M.D. [2]


If left untreated, patients with amenorrhea may progress to develop infertility and osteoporosis. Common complications of amenorrhea are based on underlying disorder that induce amenorrhea. Prognosis is generally excellent and the mortality rate of patients with amenorrhea is approximately less than 1%, generally in patients with brain lesions.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History




  1. Palomba S, Santagni S, Falbo A, La Sala GB (2015). "Complications and challenges associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: current perspectives". Int J Womens Health. 7: 745–63. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S70314. PMC 4527566. PMID 26261426.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Meczekalski B, Katulski K, Czyzyk A, Podfigurna-Stopa A, Maciejewska-Jeske M (2014) Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and its influence on women's health. J Endocrinol Invest 37 (11):1049-56. DOI:10.1007/s40618-014-0169-3 PMID: 25201001
  3. Vegetti W, Marozzi A, Manfredini E, Testa G, Alagna F, Nicolosi A, Caliari I, Taborelli M, Tibiletti MG, Dalprà L, Crosignani PG (2000). "Premature ovarian failure". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 161 (1–2): 53–7. PMID 10773392.
  4. Mattei AM, Severini V, Crosignani PG (1991). "Natural history of hyperprolactinemia". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 626: 130–6. PMID 2058949.
  5. Sanfilippo JS (1999). "Implications of not treating hyperprolactinemia". J Reprod Med. 44 (12 Suppl): 1111–5. PMID 10649820.
  6. "Premature ovarian failure - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic".
  7. Nelson LM (2009). "Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency". N Engl J Med. 360 (6): 606–14. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp0808697. PMC 2762081. PMID 19196677.
  8. Hart R (2007). "Polycystic ovarian syndrome--prognosis and treatment outcomes". Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 19 (6): 529–35. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e3282f10e22. PMID 18007129.

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