Stomatitis natural history, complications and prognosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [2], Usama Talib, BSc, MD [3]

Overview

The natural history and complications vary among different types of stomatitis. Meningoencephalitis, recurrent skin and mouth infections, dissemination of the infection, and teeth loss are a few known complications of stomatitis. The prognosis for most types of stomatitis is good.

Natural History

If left untreated herpetic stomatitis resolves after the vesicles erupt and the ulcers heal. The HSV travels along the length of the nerves and moves to the ganglions where it stays in latent form. When the host becomes immunocompromised after taking medications or due to some other illness, the virus assesses the opportunity and through the same nerves becomes active once again manifesting symptoms such as oral vesicles.[1] The viral shedding can continue for 2-12 days after the onset of primary infection.[2]

Complications

Some complications of stomatitis include:[1][3]

Life threatening complications

Other Common Complications

Noma Complications

Prognosis

  • Pyostomatitis vegetans has no malignant potential and treatment of underlying IBD is very effective to eradicate the disease completely. The prognosis is good with treatment.[4]
  • Contact stomatitis is cured completely by avoiding allergens responsible for causing the stomatitis.[5]
  • Nicotinic stomatitis is cured completely by avoidance of smoking.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kolokotronis A, Doumas S (2006). "Herpes simplex virus infection, with particular reference to the progression and complications of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis". Clin Microbiol Infect. 12 (3): 202–11. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2005.01336.x. PMID 16451405.
  2. Amir J, Harel L, Smetana Z, Varsano I (1999). "The natural history of primary herpes simplex type 1 gingivostomatitis in children". Pediatr Dermatol. 16 (4): 259–63. PMID 10469407.
  3. Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A., et al. "Herpes simplex virus 1 interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 contributes to lethal encephalitis." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101.5 (2004): 1315-1320.
  4. Hegarty AM, Barrett AW, Scully C (2004). "Pyostomatitis vegetans". Clin Exp Dermatol. 29 (1): 1–7. PMID 14723710.
  5. Larsen KR, Johansen JD, Reibel J, Zachariae C, Pedersen AM (2017). "Symptomatic oral lesions may be associated with contact allergy to substances in oral hygiene products". Clin Oral Investig. doi:10.1007/s00784-017-2053-y. PMID 28084550.




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