Stomatitis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [2], Usama Talib, BSc, MD [3]


Many factors contribute the development of stomatitis in an individual. Risk factors for stomatitis include alcohol, smoking, trauma, stress, nutritional deficiency, and immunocompromised status.[1]

Risk factors

The following risk factors are believed to influence the development of stomatitis:[2][3][4][5][6]

Common risk factors

Common risk factors for stomatitis include:

Denture stomatitis

Risk factors for denture stomatitis include:[7][8]

Candida stomatitis

Bovine papular stomatitis

Pyostomatitis Vegetans

Trench mouth or Acute ulcerative necrotizing gingivitis

Hand foot and mouth disease

Risk factors for hand foot and mouth disease include:[11]

Nicotinic Stomatitis

Contact stomatitis


  1. R. Morgan, J. Tsang, N. Harrington & L. Fook (2001). "Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients". Postgraduate medical journal. 77 (908): 392–394. PMID 11375454. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. R. Morgan, J. Tsang, N. Harrington & L. Fook (2001). "Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients". Postgraduate medical journal. 77 (908): 392–394. PMID 11375454. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Carolina-Cavalieri Gomes, Ricardo-Santiago Gomez, Livia-Guimaraes Zina & Fabricio-Rezende Amaral (2016). "Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori". Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal. 21 (2): e187–e191. PMID 26827061. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Melnick SL, Roseman JM, Engel D, Cogen RB (1988). "Epidemiology of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis". Epidemiol Rev. 10: 191–211. PMID 3066627.
  5. Shannon IL, Kilgore WG, O'Leary TJ (1969). "Stres as a predisposing factor in necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis". J Periodontol. 40 (4): 240–2. doi:10.1902/jop.1969.40.4.240. PMID 5253993.
  6. Shields WD (1977). "Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. A study of some of the contributing factors and their validity in an Army population". J Periodontol. 48 (6): 346–9. doi:10.1902/jop.1977.48.6.346. PMID 266582.
  7. Arendorf TM, Walker DM (1987). "Denture stomatitis: a review". J Oral Rehabil. 14 (3): 217–27. PMID 3298586.
  8. Marinoski J, Bokor-Bratić M, Čanković M (2014). "Is denture stomatitis always related with candida infection? A case control study". Med Glas (Zenica). 11 (2): 379–84. PMID 25082257.
  9. Pellicer Z, Santiago JM, Rodriguez A, Alonso V, Antón R, Bosca MM (2012). "Management of cutaneous disorders related to inflammatory bowel disease". Ann Gastroenterol. 25 (1): 21–26. PMC 3959344. PMID 24713996.
  10. Atout RN, Todescan S (2013). "Managing patients with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis". J Can Dent Assoc. 79: d46. PMID 23763733.
  11. Zhang D, Li R, Zhang W, Li G, Ma Z, Chen X; et al. (2017). "A Case-control Study on Risk Factors for Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease". Sci Rep. 7: 40282. doi:10.1038/srep40282. PMC 5233949. PMID 28084311.
  12. dos Santos RB, Katz J (2009). "Nicotinic stomatitis: positive correlation with heat in maté tea drinks and smoking". Quintessence Int. 40 (7): 537–40. PMID 19626226.
  13. Taybos G (2003). "Oral changes associated with tobacco use". Am J Med Sci. 326 (4): 179–82. PMID 14557730.