Stomatitis overview

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Overview

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Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Stomatitis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

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CT

MRI

Ultrasound

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Surgery

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [2], Usama Talib, BSc, MD [3]

Overview

Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mucous lining of any structure in the mouth, which may involve the cheeks, gums, tongue, lips, throat, and/or the roof or floor of the mouth. The inflammation can be the result of conditions within the mouth itself, such as poor oral hygiene, poorly fitted dentures, or mouth burns from hot food or drinks. It may also be caused by conditions that affect the entire body, such as medications, allergic reactions, or infections. A form of stomatitis known as stomatitis nicotina can be caused by smoking cigars, cigarettes, and/or pipes, and is characterized by small red bumps on the roof of the mouth.[1]

When stomatitis also involves an inflammation of the gingiva, it is called gingivostomatitis. Irritation and fissuring in the corners of the lips is termed angular stomatits or angular cheilitis. In children, a common cause of angular stomatitis is repeated lip-licking; in adults, it may be a sign of underlying iron deficiency anemia, or vitamin B deficiencies (e.g., B2-riboflavin, B9-folate, or B12-cobalamins), which in turn may be evidence of poor dietary habits or malnutrition (e.g., celiac disease).

Classification

There is no established classification system for stomatitis. Stomatitis can be classified on the basis of aetiology or on the basis of the pathogens involved. The infectious and non-infectious types of stomatitis may include:[2][3]

Pathophysiology

Stomatitis is the inflammation of the mucosal surfaces in the mouth. Various factors can contribute to the pathogenesis of stomatitis depending on the type of stomatitis.[9]

Causes

Various causes, including herpes virus, lack of oral hygiene, and nutritional deficiencies, can lead to the development of stomatitis. The most common causes of stomatitis include:[12][13][9]

Differential Diagnosis

Stomatitis should be differentiated from various subtypes of stomatitis, as well as from many other disease that can involve the oral cavity, such as agranulocystosis, Behcet's disease, immunodeficiency, and tumors of the oral cavity (e.g., leukoplakia).[3][14]

Epidemiology and Demographics

The epidemiology and demographics vary among different kinds of stomatitis.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of stomatitis include alcohol, smoking, trauma, stress, nutritional deficiency, and immunocompromised status.[16] The risk factors believed to influence the development of stomatitis include:[17][18]

Screening

According to the the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF), there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for stomatitis.[22]

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History

If left untreated, herpetic stomatitis resolves after the vesicles erupt and the ulcers heal. The HSV travels along the nerves and moves to the ganglions where it stays in latent form. When the host becomes immunocompromised after taking medications or due to some other illness, the virus assesses the opportunity and through the same nerves becomes active once again manifesting symptoms such as oral vesicles.[12] The viral shedding can continue for 2-12 days after primary infection.[23]

Complications

Some complications of stomatitis include:[12][24]

Prognosis

The prognosis of stomatitis is generally good.

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

It is necessary to collect a thorough history and understanding of the symptoms in order to arrive at a diagnosis of stomatitis. The diagnosis of stomatitis is mostly clinical. The location and features of the ulcers are also important findings for this purpose. Previous history of bad breath and refusal to eat or drink are common among patients presenting with an episode.[12] Some general symptoms associated with herpetic stomatitis include:[12]

Physical Examination

A thorough history and physical exam are a necessary for a detailed understanding and diagnosis of stomatitis. The diagnosis of stomatitis is mostly clinical. The location and features of the ulcers are also important findings in this regard. The exam findings may include:

Laboratory Findings

History and physical examination are the primary means of diagnosing stomatitis. If required, laboratory findings can play an important role in diagnosing and differentiating between different types of stomatitis. Viral culture, Tzanck smear for active lesions, serology, studies using immunofluorescent techniques, and PCR are a few techniques normally used to diagnoses herpetic stomatitis.

X ray

There are no X ray findings associated with stomatitis.

CT

There are no CT findings associated with stomatitis.

MRI

There are no MRI findings associated with stomatitis.

Ultrasound

There are no ultrasound findings associated with stomatitis.

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Preventive measures and medical therapy are the mainstay of therapy for stomatitis. The medical therapy varies for various causes and types of stomatitis.The therapy for stomatitis is governed by following principles:[25]

Surgery

Surgical intervention is not recommended for the management of most types of stomatitis. It is not preferred unless there is a suspicion for an oral tumor or a biopsy is required for the diagnosis of the exact type of stomatitis. Surgical debridement may be done for Noma or trench mouth. Surgery is sometimes performed for cosmetic reasons (e.g., in the case of noma/gangrenous stomatitis).

Primary Prevention

Effective measures for the primary prevention of stomatitis include:

Secondary Prevention

Effective measures for the secondary preventive measures for stomatitis include:

  • Treatment of IBD prevents the development of pyostomatitis vegetans.[27]
  • Treatment of candidiasis

References

  1. "Smoking and Noncancerous Oral Disease" (PDF). The Reports of the Surgeon General. 1969. Retrieved 2006-06-23.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Murray LN, Amedee RG (2000). "Recurrent aphthous stomatitis". J La State Med Soc. 152 (1): 10–4. PMID 10668310.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Mandell; Gouglas, Gordon; Bennett, John. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Harvard Medical School: WILEY MEDICAL. p. 383. ISBN 0-471-87643-7. Unknown parameter |firs1t= ignored (help)
  4. Zwetyenga N, See LA, Szwebel J, Beuste M, Aragou M, Oeuvrard C; et al. (2015). "[Noma]". Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac Chir Orale. 116 (4): 261–79. doi:10.1016/j.revsto.2015.06.009. PMID 26235765.
  5. Zhou PR, Hua H, Liu XS (2017). "Quantity of Candida Colonies in Saliva: 
A Diagnostic Evaluation for Oral Candidiasis". Chin J Dent Res. 20 (1): 27–32. doi:10.3290/j.cjdr.a37739. PMID 28232964.
  6. A. Tosti, B. M. Piraccini & A. M. Peluso (1997). "Contact and irritant stomatitis". Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery. 16 (4): 314–319. PMID 9421224. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Anderson JG, Peralta S, Kol A, Kass PH, Murphy B (2017). "Clinical and Histopathologic Characterization of Canine Chronic Ulcerative Stomatitis". Vet Pathol: 300985816688754. doi:10.1177/0300985816688754. PMID 28113036.
  8. Katsoulas N, Chrysomali E, Piperi E, Levidou G, Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou A (2016). "Atypical methotrexate ulcerative stomatitis with features of lymphoproliferative like disorder: Report of a rare ciprofloxacin-induced case and review of the literature". J Clin Exp Dent. 8 (5): e629–e633. doi:10.4317/jced.52909. PMC 5149103. PMID 27957282.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Sonis ST (2004). "The pathobiology of mucositis". Nat Rev Cancer. 4 (4): 277–84. doi:10.1038/nrc1318. PMID 15057287.
  10. Ship JA (1996). "Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. An update". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 81 (2): 141–7. PMID 8665304.
  11. Dalghous AM, Freysdottir J, Fortune F (2006). "Expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in oral ulcers of patients with Behcet's disease (BD) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis is Th1-associated, although Th2-association is also observed in patients with BD". Scand J Rheumatol. 35 (6): 472–5. PMID 17343257.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Kolokotronis A, Doumas S (2006). "Herpes simplex virus infection, with particular reference to the progression and complications of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis". Clin Microbiol Infect. 12 (3): 202–11. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2005.01336.x. PMID 16451405.
  13. R. Morgan, J. Tsang, N. Harrington & L. Fook (2001). "Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients". Postgraduate medical journal. 77 (908): 392–394. PMID 11375454. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  14. Scully C (1999). "A review of common mucocutaneous disorders affecting the mouth and lips". Ann Acad Med Singapore. 28 (5): 704–7. PMID 10597357.
  15. Hansen L.S., Silverman S., and Daniels T.E.: The differential diagnosis of pyostomatitis vegetans and its relation to bowel disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1983; 55: pp. 363-373
  16. R. Morgan, J. Tsang, N. Harrington & L. Fook (2001). "Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients". Postgraduate medical journal. 77 (908): 392–394. PMID 11375454. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  17. R. Morgan, J. Tsang, N. Harrington & L. Fook (2001). "Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients". Postgraduate medical journal. 77 (908): 392–394. PMID 11375454. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  18. Carolina-Cavalieri Gomes, Ricardo-Santiago Gomez, Livia-Guimaraes Zina & Fabricio-Rezende Amaral (2016). "Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori". Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal. 21 (2): e187–e191. PMID 26827061. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  19. Kenji Momo (2015). "[Indomethacin Spray Preparation for the Control of Pain Associated with Stomatitis Caused by Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Cancer Patients]". Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 135 (8): 931–935. doi:10.1248/yakushi.15-00112-1. PMID 26234349.
  20. Arendorf TM, Walker DM (1987). "Denture stomatitis: a review". J Oral Rehabil. 14 (3): 217–27. PMID 3298586.
  21. Marinoski J, Bokor-Bratić M, Čanković M (2014). "Is denture stomatitis always related with candida infection? A case control study". Med Glas (Zenica). 11 (2): 379–84. PMID 25082257.
  22. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/BrowseRec/Search?s=stomatitis Accessed on August 31, 2016
  23. Amir J, Harel L, Smetana Z, Varsano I (1999). "The natural history of primary herpes simplex type 1 gingivostomatitis in children". Pediatr Dermatol. 16 (4): 259–63. PMID 10469407.
  24. Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A., et al. "Herpes simplex virus 1 interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 contributes to lethal encephalitis." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101.5 (2004): 1315-1320.
  25. Wade JC, Newton B, McLaren C, Flournoy N, Keeney RE, Meyers JD (1982). "Intravenous acyclovir to treat mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection after marrow transplantation: a double-blind trial". Ann Intern Med. 96 (3): 265–9. PMID 7036816.
  26. Rodu B, Mattingly G (1992). "Oral mucosal ulcers: diagnosis and management". J Am Dent Assoc. 123 (10): 83–6. PMID 1401597.
  27. Hegarty AM, Barrett AW, Scully C (2004). "Pyostomatitis vegetans". Clin Exp Dermatol. 29 (1): 1–7. PMID 14723710.

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