Stomatitis causes

Jump to: navigation, search

Stomatitis Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical perspective




Differentiating Stomatitis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

X Ray




Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Stomatitis causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Stomatitis causes

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Stomatitis causes

CDC on Stomatitis causes

Stomatitis causes in the news

Blogs on Stomatitis causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Bursitis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Stomatitis causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [2], Usama Talib, BSc, MD [3]


Various pathogens including herpes virus, Ebola, HIV, lack of oral hygiene and nutritional deficiencies can cause stomatitis along with many other causes.[1][2]


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

The common causes of stomatitis include:[3][4][5]

Infectious Causes

Some causative factors for the infectious subtypes of stomatitis include:


The following pathogens can cause stomatitis in HIV:[6]

Necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis or Stomatitis gangrenosa or Noma

Causes of gangrenous stomatitis include:[7][8]

Trench mouth or Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

Bovine papular stomatitis

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease

Candidal Stomatitis

Non-infectious Causes

Nicotinic stomatitis

  • Smoking with a pipe[14]

Contact stomatitis

  • Aromatic substances in products used for oral hygiene[15][16]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Kawasaki disease
Chemical/Poisoning Bismuthia, gold, mercury poisoning, nickel, thallium
Dental Angular cheilitis, angular stomatitis, aphthous stomatitis, aphthous ulcer, burning mouth syndrome, dentures, desquamative gingivitis, dry mouth, herpetic gingivostomatitis, hypertrophic gums, nicotine stomatitis, oral lesions, oral submucous fibrosis, oral ulceration, trench mouth, ulcerative gingivitis, Vincent's angina
Dermatologic Behcet's disease, bismuthia, erythema multiforme, gluten-sensitive enteropathy associated conditions, lip balm, pemphigoid, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, vesicular stomatitis with exanthem, warts
Drug Side Effect Acmella oleracea, afatinib, aflibercept, alemtuzumab, aminopterin, aralen phosphate, auranofin, benzydamine, bleomycin, boceprevir, busulfan, cabozantinib, capecitabine, carboplatin, cerubidine, chemotherapy, chloramphenicol, chloroquine phosphate, clofibrate, cosmegen, cyclophosphamide, cytosine arabinoside, dacarbazine, dactinomycin, daptomycin, daunorubicin, docetaxel, epirubicin,eribulin, etoposide, everolimus, floxuridine, fluorouracil, gemcitabine, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gentamicin, ginkgo biloba, hexetidine, ixabepilone, ketorolac tromethamine, lenvatinib, levoleucovorin, lincomycin hydrochloride, lomustine, loratadine, melphalan, methotrexate, metronidazole, mitomycin, mitoxantrone, nabumetone, nicotine polacrilex, oxaliplatin, oxaprozin, oxcarbazepine, palbociclib, panitumumab, paraplatin, penicillin G potassium, pentostatin, peplomycin, pertuzumab, phenylbutazone, pixantrone, pralatrexate, pramipexole, procainamide, sargramostim, sirolimus, sodium aurothiomalate, sorafenib, sulfasalazine, sulindac, sunitinib, temsirolimus, thioguanine, tiagabine, tolmetin, trametinib, ziv-aflibercept
Ear Nose Throat Angular stomatitis, aphthous stomatitis, aphthous ulcer, glandular fever, oropharyngeal cancer, periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis, trench mouth, uvulitis, Vincent's angina
Endocrine Glucagonoma
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Celiac disease, Crohn's disease, dysphagia, inflammatory bowel disease, odynophagia, oropharyngeal candidiasis, ulcerative colitis
Genetic Chronic granulomatous disease
Hematologic Agranulocytosis, anemia, cyclic neutropenia, iron deficiency anemia, leukemia, neutropenia
Iatrogenic Irradiation
Infectious Disease Aphthous stomatitis, aphthous ulcer, arbovirus, baculovirus, bovine papular stomatitis, candidiasis, coxsackie virus, diphtheritic stomatitis, ebola, esophageal candidiasis, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, gangrenous stomatitis, glandular fever, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, herpes simplex virus, herpes zoster, herpes, herpetic gingivostomatitis, HIV, infectious stomatitis, lassa fever, lichen planus, Marburg virus, noma (disease), oncolytic virus, oropharyngeal candidiasis, parapoxvirus, periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis, syphilis, trench mouth, tuberculosis, typhlitis, vesicular stomatitis virus, vesicular stomatitis with exanthem, vesiculovirus, Vincent's angina, warts
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Odynophagia
Neurologic Parkinson's disease
Nutritional/Metabolic Angular cheilitis, ariboflavinosis, folate deficiency, kwashiorkor, lingzhi, nutritional deficiency, pyrophosphate, vitamin B12 deficiency, vitamin B2 deficiency, vitamin B6 deficiency, vitamin C deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic Warts
Oncologic Cancer, glucagonoma, leukemia, oropharyngeal cancer
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric Emotional stress
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Allergies, autoimmune diseases, Behcet's disease, chronic granulomatous disease, combined immunodeficiencies, drug hypersensitivity, gluten-sensitive enteropathy associated conditions, pemphigoid, periodic fever syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Mucosa hemorrhage

Causes in Alphabetical Order[17] [18]


  1. Magliocca KR, Fitzpatrick SG (2017). "Autoimmune Disease Manifestations in the Oral Cavity". Surg Pathol Clin. 10 (1): 57–88. doi:10.1016/j.path.2016.11.001. PMID 28153136.
  2. Pellicer Z, Santiago JM, Rodriguez A, Alonso V, Antón R, Bosca MM (2012). "Management of cutaneous disorders related to inflammatory bowel disease". Ann Gastroenterol. 25 (1): 21–26. PMC 3959344. PMID 24713996.
  3. Kolokotronis A, Doumas S (2006). "Herpes simplex virus infection, with particular reference to the progression and complications of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis". Clin Microbiol Infect. 12 (3): 202–11. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2005.01336.x. PMID 16451405.
  4. R. Morgan, J. Tsang, N. Harrington & L. Fook (2001). "Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients". Postgraduate medical journal. 77 (908): 392–394. PMID 11375454. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Sonis ST (2004). "The pathobiology of mucositis". Nat Rev Cancer. 4 (4): 277–84. doi:10.1038/nrc1318. PMID 15057287.
  6. Ramírez-Amador V, Esquivel-Pedraza L, Sierra-Madero J, Anaya-Saavedra G, González-Ramírez I, Ponce-de-León S (2003). "The Changing Clinical Spectrum of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Related Oral Lesions in 1,000 Consecutive Patients: A 12-Year Study in a Referral Center in Mexico". Medicine (Baltimore). 82 (1): 39–50. PMID 12544709.
  7. Mandell; Gouglas, Gordon; Bennett, John. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Harvard Medical School: WILEY MEDICAL. p. 383. ISBN 0-471-87643-7. Unknown parameter |firs1t= ignored (help)
  8. Zwetyenga N, See LA, Szwebel J, Beuste M, Aragou M, Oeuvrard C; et al. (2015). "[Noma]". Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac Chir Orale. 116 (4): 261–79. doi:10.1016/j.revsto.2015.06.009. PMID 26235765.
  9. Chan Y, Ma AP, Lacap-Bugler DC, Huo YB, Keung Leung W, Leung FC; et al. (2014). "Complete Genome Sequence for Treponema sp. OMZ 838 (ATCC 700772, DSM 16789), Isolated from a Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis Lesion". Genome Announc. 2 (6). doi:10.1128/genomeA.01333-14. PMC 4276824. PMID 25540346.
  10. 10.0 10.1 ROBINSON CR, RHODES AJ (1961). "Vesicular exanthem and stomatitis. Report of an epidemic due to Coxsacke virus Group A, Type 16". N Engl J Med. 265: 1104–5. doi:10.1056/NEJM196111302652207. PMID 14492892.
  11. Mandell; Gouglas, Gordon; Bennett, John. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Harvard Medical School: WILEY MEDICAL. p. 988. ISBN 0-471-87643-7. Unknown parameter |firs1t= ignored (help)
  12. Kurosaki Y, Okada S, Nakamae S, Yasuda J (2016). "A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of bovine papular stomatitis virus". J Virol Methods. 238: 42–47. doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.07.031. PMID 27751948.
  13. Zhou PR, Hua H, Liu XS (2017). "Quantity of Candida Colonies in Saliva: 
A Diagnostic Evaluation for Oral Candidiasis". Chin J Dent Res. 20 (1): 27–32. doi:10.3290/j.cjdr.a37739. PMID 28232964.
  14. Taybos G (2003). "Oral changes associated with tobacco use". Am J Med Sci. 326 (4): 179–82. PMID 14557730.
  15. Larsen KR, Johansen JD, Reibel J, Zachariae C, Pedersen AM (2017). "Symptomatic oral lesions may be associated with contact allergy to substances in oral hygiene products". Clin Oral Investig. doi:10.1007/s00784-017-2053-y. PMID 28084550.
  16. A. Tosti, B. M. Piraccini & A. M. Peluso (1997). "Contact and irritant stomatitis". Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery. 16 (4): 314–319. PMID 9421224. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  17. Sailer, Christian, Wasner, Susanne. Differential Diagnosis Pocket. Hermosa Beach, CA: Borm Bruckmeir Publishing LLC, 2002:77 ISBN 1591032016
  18. Kahan, Scott, Smith, Ellen G. In A Page: Signs and Symptoms. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2004:68 ISBN140510368X