Coronary arteries

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Coronary circulation
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An anterior view of the heart shows the right coronary artery and the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery.
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Base and diaphragmatic surface of heart.
MeSH Coronary+Vessels

Coronary Angiography

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General Principles

Overview
Historical Perspective
Contraindications
Appropriate Use Criteria for Revascularization
Complications
Technique
Film Quality

Anatomy & Projection Angles

Normal Anatomy

Coronary arteries
Dominance
Right System
Left System
Left Main
Left Anterior Descending
Circumflex
Median Ramus

Anatomic Variants

Separate Ostia
Anomalous Origins
Case Example
Fistula

Projection Angles

Standard Views
Left Coronary Artery
Right Coronary Artery

Epicardial Flow & Myocardial Perfusion

Epicardial Flow

TIMI Frame Count
TIMI Flow Grade
TIMI Grade 0 Flow
TIMI Grade 1 Flow
TIMI Grade 2 Flow
TIMI Grade 3 Flow
TIMI Grade 4 Flow
Pulsatile Flow
Deceleration

Myocardial Perfusion

TIMI Myocardial Perfusion Grade
TMP Grade 0
TMP Grade 0.5
TMP Grade 1
TMP Grade 2
TMP Grade 3

Lesion Complexity

ACC/AHA Lesion-Specific Classification of the Primary Target Stenosis

Preprocedural Lesion Morphology

Eccentricity
Irregularity
Ulceration
Intimal Flap
Aneurysm
Sawtooth Pattern
Length
Ostial location
Angulation
Proximal tortuosity
Degenerated SVG
Calcification
Total occlusion
Coronary Artery Thrombus
TIMI Thrombus Grade
TIMI Thrombus Grade 0
TIMI Thrombus Grade 1
TIMI Thrombus Grade 2
TIMI Thrombus Grade 3
TIMI Thrombus Grade 4
TIMI Thrombus Grade 5
TIMI Thrombus Grade 6

Lesion Morphology

Quantitative Coronary Angiography
Definitions of Preprocedural Lesion Morphology
Irregular Lesion
Disease Extent
Arterial Foreshortening
Infarct Related Artery
Restenosis
Degenerated SVG
Collaterals
Aneurysm
Bifurcation
Trifurcation
Ulceration

Left ventriculography

Technique
Quantification of LV Function
Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Rim Halaby, M.D. [2]; Hilda Mahmoudi M.D., M.P.H.[3]; Vanessa Cherniauskas, M.D. [4]

Overview

The coronary arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle itself. Although blood fills the chambers of the heart, the muscle tissue of the heart, or myocardium, is so thick that it requires coronary blood vessels to deliver blood deep into it. There are two primary arteries supplying the heart, the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery. These two epicardial coronary arteries course along the surface of the heart and this is why they are called "epicardial" (on top of the heart) arteries. Smaller arteries dive deep into the heart muscle and are called subendocardial coronary arteries. The cardiac veins are the vessels that remove the deoxygenated blood from the heart muscle and return it to the right atrium.

Coronary Arteries

There are two primary arteries supplying the heart, the left coronary artery (LCA) and the right coronary artery (RCA). The heart is supplied by these two arteries and their branches in such a way that the LCA supplies mainly the left ventricle, whereas the RCA supplies the right atria and ventricle, the SA node, the inferior wall and posterior interventricular septum, and posteromedial papillary muscle in 85 % of the cases.

Right Coronary Artery

The right coronary artery (RCA) originates above the right cusp of the aortic valve. It travels down the right atrioventricular groove, towards the crux of the heart. In addition to supplying blood to the right ventricle (RV), the RCA supplies 25% to 35% of the left ventricle (LV).

Click here to learn more about the RCA and its branches.

Left Coronary Artery

The left coronary artery normally arises from the aortic sinus above the left cusp of the aortic valve. This artery supplies the majority of the blood flow to the left ventricle, the pumping chamber of the heart. In fact, the LCA supplies the posterolateral side of the left ventricle as well as the anterior part of the left ventricle which includes the anterolateral myocardium, the apex, the anterior interventricular septum and the anterolateral papillary muscle.

The origin of the left coronary artery is called the left main coronary artery, and it bifurcates into the following two main branches:

Click here to learn more about the LCA and its branches.

Coronary Artery Dominance

The dominance of coronary circulation is determined by the type of arteries that supply the posterior and inferior wall of the left ventricle. The artery that supplies the posterior descending artery (PDA) and the posterolateral artery (PLA) determines the coronary dominance. Approximately 60% of the general population are right-dominant, 25% are co-dominant, and 15% are left-dominant.[1]

Click here to read more about coronary artery dominance.

Download WikiDoc slides for coronary arteries here: Coronary artery anatomy

Classification of Segmental Coronary Anatomy

In order to objectively characterize the location of coronary obstructions, the coronary artery segments must be identified. Shown below is a classification scheme used by the PERFUSE Study Group that lists all the segments of the LCA and the RCA in terms of corresponding number, label, location and anatomic description. Slides developed by WikiDoc correspond to table given below.

Segment number Segment label Segment location Segment description
01 R1 Proximal right coronary artery Extends from the ostium of the right coronary artery to the first of the three longest acute marginal branches.
02 R2 Mid right coronary artery Extends from the origin of the first acute marginal branch to the origin of the third acute marginal branch.
03 R3 Distal right coronary artery Extends from the origin of the third acute marginal to the origin of the posterior descending artery.
04 R4 Right posterolateral artery This is the distal continuation of the right coronary artery after the origin of the posterior descending artery. It often has an inverted U shape as described by James and the AV nodal branch originates from this artery. It carries blood to the right posterior and right inferior arteries in large right dominant anatomy, to just the right inferior branch in small right dominant anatomy, and it is not present in left or balanced dominant systems.
05, 06, 07 A1, A2, A3 Acute marginal arteries The longest three arteries arising from the right coronary artery to supply the right ventricular wall, numbered from proximal to distal.
08 RD Right posterior descending artery In all but left dominant systems, this vessel runs in the posterior interventricular groove and supplies septal perforator branches. When present, it is one of the three longest branches on the inferior wall of the heart.
09 RI Right inferior artery Arises from the fourth segment of the right coronary artery and supplies the inferior wall. In small right dominant anatomy, it is the distal most branch arising from the right coronary artery, while in large right dominant anatomy it arises proximal to the origin of the right posterior artery. When present, it is one of the three longest branches on the inferior wall of the heart.
10 RP Right posterior artery Distal most branch to arise from the right coronary artery, but present only in large right dominant systems. When present, it is one of the three longest branches on the inferior wall of the heart.
11 LM Left main Extends from the origin of the left coronary artery to the bifurcation into the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries.
12 L1 Proximal left anterior descending artery Extends from the bifurcation of the left main coronary artery to the origin of the first septal artery.
13 L2 Mid left anterior descending artery Extends from the origin of the first septal artery to the origin of the third septal artery.
14 L3 Distal left anterior descending artery Extends from the origin of the third septal artery to the apex of the left ventricle. If there is no third septal branch, then the third segment begins halfway between S1 and the apex of the left ventricle.
15 L4 The left anterior descending artery terminus on the inferior wall The continuation of the left anterior descending artery beyond the apex of the left ventricle in the event that the LAD is a wrap around variant.
16 D1 First diagonal artery The first of the three longest branches off of the left anterior descending artery which supplies the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle.
17 D2 Second diagonal artery The second of the three longest branches off of the left anterior descending artery which supplies the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. In an RAO projection, this artery often arises where the left anterior descending angles toward the apex.
18 D3 Third diagonal artery The third of the three longest branches off of the left anterior descending artery which supplies the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. In an RAO projection, this artery often arises where the left anterior descending angles toward the apex.
19, 20, 21 S1, S2, S3 Septal arteries The three largest branches off of the left anterior descending supplying the septum.
22 MR Median Ramus An artery whose origin bisects the origins of both the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex artery. When a median ramus branch is present, the left main will be seen to trifurcate in the LAO caudal projection, and the median ramus artery is the middle artery at this point of trifurcation. This artery is also known as the intermedius.
23 C1 Proximal circumflex artery Extends from the origin of the circumflex off of the left main to the origin of the first marginal or obtuse marginal branch. When a second obtuse marginal is present and the first marginal is absent, the C1- C2 transition is defined as halfway from the origin of the circumflex to the origin of the second obtuse marginal.
24 C2 Mid circumflex artery Extends from the origin of the first marginal or obtuse marginal branch to the origin of the second marginal or obtuse marginal branch. When a second obtuse marginal is present and the first marginal is absent, the C1- C2 transition is defined as halfway from the origin of the circumflex to the origin of the second obtuse marginal. When a first obtuse marginal is present and the second marginal is absent, the C2- C3 transition is defined to be halfway from the first obtuse marginal to the end of C3.
25 C3 Distal circumflex artery Extends from the origin of the second marginal or obtuse marginal to the termination of the circumflex artery in large right dominant anatomy or to the origin of the circumflex posterior branch (CP) in all other dominance.
26 C4 Left posterolateral artery In left dominant or balanced systems this is the distal continuation of the circumflex artery in the atrio-ventricular groove. It carries blood to the left posterior descending artery and circumflex inferior artery in left dominant systems and to just the circumflex inferior artery in balanced dominant systems.
27 CP Circumflex posterior artery In all but large right dominant anatomy, this branch originates at the distal end of the third segment of the circumflex at the border of the inferior and lateral left ventricular walls where it traditionally has been called a 4th marginal branch. When present, it is one of the three longest branches supplying the inferior wall of the heart.
28 CI Circumflex inferior artery Arises from the fourth segment of the circumflex and supplies the inferior wall. In balanced dominant anatomy, it is the distal most branch arising from the circumflex, while in left dominant anatomy it arises proximal to the origin of the left posterior descending artery. When present, it is one of the three longest branches on the inferior wall of the heart.
29 CD Left posterior descending artery In left dominant systems this is the distal continuation of the left circumflex artery which travels in the interventricular groove and supplies septal perforators at the base of the heart. This branch is the distal continuation of the circumflex after it leaves the atrio-ventricular groove in left dominant anatomy. When present, it is one of the three longest branches on the inferior wall of the heart.
30, 31, 32 M1, M2, M3 Marginal arteries The three longest branches off of the circumflex artery supplying the lateral wall of the left ventricle, unless there is a large branching vessel which dominates the lateral left ventricular wall. When a large dominating artery is present, it is called an obtuse marginal. These marginal arteries are numbered from one (proximal) to three (distal).
33, 37, 41 OM1-OM3 Obtuse marginal arteries A large branching artery which dominates the lateral left ventricular wall. An obtuse marginal is composed of anterior and posterior branches which share a common trunk. The anterior and posterior branches may substitute for the first and second marginal branches (or the second and third marginal branches), although a first (or third) marginal is permitted if present. No more than a single obtuse marginal may be present. An obtuse marginal is further specified as OM1 B OM3 depending on where the trunk arises compared to the usual origins of the first, second and third marginal arteries.
36, 40, 44 OT Obtuse marginal trunk The common trunk of an artery connecting the anterior and posterior branches of an obtuse marginal to the circumflex. As no more than a single obtuse marginal may be present, the OT is not numbered. The 36 corresponds with OM1/OT, the 40 with OM2/OT, the 44 with OM3/OT.
34, 38, 42 OA Anterior branch of the obtuse marginal artery The anterior branch of an artery when it is a large branching vessel which dominates the lateral left ventricular wall. As no more than a single obtuse marginal may be present, the OA is not numbered.
35, 39, 43 OP Posterior branch of the obtuse marginal artery The posterior branch of an artery when it is a large branching vessel which dominates the lateral left ventricular wall. As no more than a single obtuse marginal may be present, the OP is not numbered. The 35 corresponds with OM1/OP, the 39 with OM2/OP, the 43 with OM3/OP.
45 SVGLAD Saphenous Vein Graft to the LAD
46 SVGCX Saphenous Vein Graft to Circumflex
47 SVGRCA Saphenous Vein Graft to the Right Coronary Artery
48 SVGPDA Saphenous Vein Graft to the PDA
49 SVGOM Saphenous Vein Graft to the Obtuse Marginal
50 SVGD Saphenous Vein Graft to Diagonal
51 LIMA Left Internal Mammary Artery to the Left anterior descending artery

References

  1. Kaimkhani ZA, Ali MM, Faruqi AM (2005). "Pattern of coronary arterial distribution and its relation to coronary artery diameter". Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC. 17 (1): 40–3. PMID 15929526. 



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