Adenocarcinoma of the lung risk factors

Jump to: navigation, search

Adenocarcinoma of the Lung Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Adenocarcinoma of the Lung from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

X Ray




Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies



Medical Therapy

Stage I
Stage II
Stage III
Stage IV
Metastatic Cancer


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Adenocarcinoma of the lung risk factors On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Adenocarcinoma of the lung risk factors

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Adenocarcinoma of the lung risk factors

CDC on Adenocarcinoma of the lung risk factors

Adenocarcinoma of the lung risk factors in the news

Blogs on Adenocarcinoma of the lung risk factors

Directions to Hospitals Treating Adenocarcinoma of the lung

Risk calculators and risk factors for Adenocarcinoma of the lung risk factors

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shanshan Cen, M.D. [2]


Common risk factors in the development of adenocarcinoma of the lung are smoking, family history of lung cancer, high levels of air pollution, radiation therapy to the chest, radon gas, asbestos, occupational exposure to chemical carcinogens, and previous lung disease.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors


  • Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer.
  • Both active and passive smoking are associated with increased risk of lung cancer.
  • The risk of lung cancer is associated with increased quantity as well as increased duration of smoking.
  • There is no evidence to suggest that smoking low-tar cigarettes lowers the risk.
  • Recently introduced e-cigarrettes, which were thought to be risk-free were recently demonstrated to be also associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer due to the presence of formaldehyde.[6]
  • Smoking accounts for 87% of lung cancer cases in the US. The lag period between smoking and death due to lung cancer is 20 years.[7]

Second-hand smoke

  • Second-hand smoke is exhaled by smokers. It is also known as involuntary, passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).[8]
  • Acitvely inhaled smoke and second-hand smoke contain the same chemicals.
  • Exposure to second-hand smoke increases risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Second-hand smoke is a major risk factor for lung cancer among non-smokers.
  • Even small amounts of exposure to second hand smoke is considered unsafe.[9]

Air Pollution

  • Emissions from automobiles, factories and power plants may increase predisposition of individuals to lung cancer.[10]

Family History of Lung Cancer

  • Family history of lung cancer may increase the risk of developing lung cancer in individuals.[12]
  • First-degree relatives of lung cancer patients are always considered high-risk.

Radiation Therapy to the Chest

Radon Exposure

  • Radon exposure increases the risk of lung cancer. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers and the second leading cause of lung cancer in smokers.
  • Radon comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil and may reach unsafe levels in enclosed, poorly ventilated homes or buildings due to seepage into the basement.
  • The risk of developing lung cancer depends on degree of exposure, duration of exposure and smoking history. The risk is much higher in smokers.

Asbestos Exposure[13]

  • The risk of asbestos exposure is highest for miners or those involved in manufacturing.
  • Studies have shown that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure is extremely hazardous.

Exposure to Other Chemical Carcinogens[14]

Exposure to chemical carcinogens may be particularly harmful and predispose to the development of lung adenocarcinoma.

Less Common Risk Factors

  • Less common risk factors in the development of adenocarcinoma of the lung include:[15]
    • Marijuana use
    • Indoor burning of wood
    • High-temperature frying
    • Meat diet
    • Physical inactivity
    • Occupational exposure to certain chemicals
    • Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, dioxin, cobalt-tungsten carbide, or strong inorganic acid mists
    • Removal of both ovaries


  1. Lung cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015.
  2. CDC (Dec 1986). "1986 Surgeon General's report: the health consequences of involuntary smoking". CDC. PMID 3097495. Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
    * National Research Council (1986). Environmental tobacco smoke: measuring exposures and assessing health effects. National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-07456-8. 
    * EPA (1992). "Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: lung cancer and other disorders". EPA. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
    * California Environmental Protection Agency (1997). "Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke". Tobacco Control. 6 (4): 346–353. PMID 9583639. Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
    * CDC (Dec 2001). "State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults, and policies and attitudes about secondhand smoke—United States, 2000". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. CDC. 50 (49): 1101–1106. PMID 11794619. Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
    * Alberg, AJ (Jan 2003). "Epidemiology of lung cancer". Chest. American College of Chest Physicians. 123 (S1): 21S–49S. PMID 12527563. Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
  3. Boffetta, P (Oct 1998). "Multicenter case-control study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in Europe". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Oxford University Press. 90 (19): 1440–1450. PMID 9776409. Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
  4. "Report of the Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health". Department of Health. Mar 1998. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
    * Hackshaw, AK (Jun 1998). "Lung cancer and passive smoking". Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 7 (2): 119–136. PMID 9654638. 
  5. National Health and Medical Research Council (Apr 1994). "The health effects and regulation of passive smoking". Australian Government Publishing Service. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  6. Jensen RP, Luo W, Pankow JF, Strongin RM, Peyton DH (2015). "Hidden formaldehyde in e-cigarette aerosols.". N Engl J Med. 372 (4): 392–4. PMID 25607446. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1413069. 
  7. Samet, JM (May 1988). "Cigarette smoking and lung cancer in New Mexico". American Review of Respiratory Disease. 137 (5): 1110–1113. PMID 3264122. 
  8. Lung cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015.
  9. Lung cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015.
  10. Parent, ME (Jan 2007). "Exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and the risk of lung cancer". American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (1): 53–62. PMID 17062632. 
  11. Lung cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015.
  12. Lung cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015.
  13. Lung cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015.
  14. Lung cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015.
  15. Lung cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015.