Adenocarcinoma of the lung screening

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shanshan Cen, M.D. [2]

Overview

According to the clinical practice guideline by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), screening for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is recommended every year among smokers and former smokers who are between 55 to 80 years old and who have smoked 30 pack-years or more and either continue to smoke or have quit within the past 15 years (grade B recommendation).[1] According to the clinical practice guideline issued by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) in 2013, screening for lung cancer by low-dose CT (LDCT) is recommended every year among smokers and former smokers who are age 55 to 74 and who have smoked for 30 pack-years or more and either continue to smoke or have quit within the past 15 years.[2]

Screening

Guidelines

  • According to the clinical practice guideline by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), screening for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is recommended every year among smokers and former smokers who are between 55 to 80 years old and who have smoked 30 pack-years or more and either continue to smoke or have quit within the past 15 years (grade B recommendation).[1]
  • According to the clinical practice guideline issued by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) in 2013, screening for lung cancer by low-dose CT (LDCT) is recommended every year among smokers and former smokers who are age 55 to 74 and who have smoked for 30 pack-years or more and either continue to smoke or have quit within the past 15 years.[2]

Strategies[3]

  • Low-dose helical computed tomography
  • Benefits
  • There is evidence that screening persons aged 55 to 74 years who have cigarette smoking histories of 30 or more pack-years and who, if they are former smokers, have quit within the last 15 years reduces lung cancer mortality by 20% and all-cause mortality by 6.7%.
  • Harms
  • Based on solid evidence, at least 98% of all positive low-dose helical computed tomography screening exams (but not all) do not result in a lung cancer diagnosis. False-positive exams may result in unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures.
  • Chest x-ray and/or sputum cytology
  • Benefits
  • Based on solid evidence, screening with chest x-ray and/or sputum cytology does not reduce mortality from lung cancer in the general population or in ever-smokers.
  • Harms
  • False positive exams
  • Based on solid evidence, at least 95% of all positive chest x-ray screening exams (but not all) do not result in a lung cancer diagnosis. False-positive exams result in unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures.

Overdiagnosis

  • Based on solid evidence, a modest but non-negligible percentage of lung cancers detected by screening chest x-ray and/or sputum cytology appear to represent overdiagnosed cancer; the magnitude of overdiagnosis appears to be between 5% and 25%. These cancers result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and also lead to unnecessary treatment. Harms of diagnostic procedures and treatment occur most frequently among long-term and/or heavy smokers because of smoking-associated comorbidities that increase risk propagation.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Lung Cancer Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 2015. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/lung-cancer-screening Accessed on December 20, 2015
  2. 2.0 2.1 Detterbeck FC, Mazzone PJ, Naidich DP, Bach PB (2013). "Screening for Lung Cancer: Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.". Chest. 143 (5 Suppl): e78S–92S. PMID 23649455. doi:10.1378/chest.12-2350.  Summary in JournalWatch
  3. Lung Cancer Screening. National Cancer Institute 2015. http://www.cancer.gov/types/lung/hp/lung-screening-pdq Accessed on December 20, 2015

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