Hematuria resident survival guide

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Hematuria
Resident Survival Guide
Overview
Causes
Diagnosis
Treatment
Do's
Don'ts


Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];

Overview

Presence of >5 red blood cells (RBCs) per high-power microscopic field in the urine is called hematuria. It can have either benign or malignant etiology. Patients with hematuria could be asymptomatic. Therefore, all patients presenting with a single episode of haematuria require urgent investigation. Microscopic hematuria, or microhematuria (MH), is defined as the presence of RBC on microscopic examination of the urine not evident on visual inspection of the urine. The prevalence of MH among healthy participants in screening studies is 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4 to 12.2), with higher rates in studies with a predominance of males, older patients, and smokers.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Children[1] Age <50 years[2] Age >50 years[2]

Diagnosis

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Treatment

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the treatment of [[disease name]] according the the [...] guidelines.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Do's

  • The content in this section is in bullet points.

Don'ts

  • The content in this section is in bullet points.

References

  1. Amin, Nimisha; Zaritsky, Joshua J. (2011). "Hematuria": 258–261. doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-05405-8.00069-3.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "www.surgeryjournal.co.uk".