Guanylate cyclase 2C

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Identifiers
Aliases
External IDsGeneCards: [2]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
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RefSeq (mRNA)

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Guanylate cyclase 2C, also known as guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), intestinal guanylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase-C receptor, or the heat-stable enterotoxin receptor (hSTAR) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GUCY2C gene.[1][2]

Guanylyl cyclase is an enzyme found in the luminal aspect of intestinal epithelium and dopamine neurons in the brain.[3] The receptor has an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single transmembrane region, a region with sequence similar to that of protein kinases, and a C-terminal guanylate cyclase domain. Tyrosine kinase activity mediates the GC-C signaling pathway within the cell.

Functions

GC-C is a key receptor for heat-stable enterotoxins that are responsible for acute secretory diarrhea.[4] Heat-stable enterotoxins are produced by pathogens such as Escherichia coli. Knockout mice deficient in the GC-C gene do not show secretory diarrhea on infection with E. coli, though they do with cholera toxin. This demonstrates the specificity of the GC-C receptor.

Diagnostic application

Because GC-C is tissue-specific for intestinal epithelium, it can be used for detection of metastatic disease.[citation needed][clarification needed]

See also

References

  1. "Entrez Gene: guanylate cyclase 2C (heat stable enterotoxin receptor)".
  2. Mann EA, Swenson ES, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Taguchi T, Testa JR, Giannella RA (June 1996). "Localization of the guanylyl cyclase C gene to mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 12p12". Genomics. 34 (2): 265–7. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0284. PMID 8661067.
  3. Intestinal Protein May Have Role in ADHD, Other Neurological Disorders. ScienceDaily (Aug. 11, 2011) [1]
  4. Weiglmeier PR, Rösch P, Berkner H (August 2010). "Cure and Curse: E. coli Heat-Stable Enterotoxin and Its Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase C". Toxins. 2 (9): 2213–2229. doi:10.3390/toxins2092213.

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