Fibroma pathophysiology

Jump to: navigation, search

Fibroma Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Differentiating Fibroma from other Diseases

Natural History, Complications & Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

X Ray

CT

MRI

Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Case Studies

Case #1

Fibroma pathophysiology On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Fibroma pathophysiology

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Fibroma pathophysiology

CDC on Fibroma pathophysiology

Fibroma pathophysiology in the news

Blogs on Fibroma pathophysiology

Directions to Hospitals Treating Fibroma

Risk calculators and risk factors for Fibroma pathophysiology

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maneesha Nandimandalam, M.B.B.S.[2], Simrat Sarai, M.D. [3]

Overview

On gross pathology, polypoid lesion which is usually small, are characteristic findings of oral fibroma. On microscopic histopathological analysis, fibrous stroma, collagen bundles, prominent vessels, and overlying squamous mucosa with hyperkeratosis and focal ulceration are characteristic findings of oral fibroma. On gross pathology, well circumscribed, metaphyseal lesion, and fragments of white-grey rubbery tissue are characteristic findings of chondromyxoid fibroma. On microscopic histopathological analysis, spindle cells or stellate cells in a myxoid or chondroid stroma, lobules with hypocellular centers and hypercellular peripheries, giant cells in a hypercellular periphery, and scattered calcifications are characteristic findings of chondromyxoid fibroma. On gross pathology, fleshy, fibrous, yellow or tan-brown lesion with variable areas of haemorrhage are characteristic findings of non-ossifying fibroma. On microscopic histopathological analysis, spindle cells without cytologic atypia are arranged in a storiform pattern, scattered chronic inflammatory cells and benign giant cells, foam cells and hemosiderin deposition, and mitoses are characteristic findings of non-ossifying fibroma. On gross pathology, discrete mass that is well delineated from surrounding bone, tan-white, rubbery cut surface, firm to gritty and no encapsulation are characteristic findings of ossifying fibroma. On microscopic histopathological analysis, haphazardly distributed lamellated bony spicules on a background of fibrous stroma, a zonal architecture with a center of immature bone surrounded by more mature lamellar bone, and central spicules of woven bony trabeculae are lined by a layer of osteoblasts are characteristic findings of ossifying fibroma.[1][2]

Pathophysiology

Type of fibroma Location Gross pathology Microscpoic pathology Genetics and Immunohistochemistry Associated conditions
Ovarian Fibroma [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
  • None
Oral Fibroma [11][12][13]
  • None
Chondromyxoid fibroma [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]
  • Well circumscribed, metaphyseal lesion, and fragments of white-grey rubbery tissue are noted
  • None
Uterine fibroma [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]
  • Round, well circumscribed (but not encapsulated), solid nodules that are white or tan, and show whorled appearance
Ossifying Fibroma [34][35][36][37][38][39][40]
  • Discrete mass that is well delineated from surrounding bone, tan-white, rubbery cut surface, firm to gritty and no encapsulation
  • They comprise of haphazardly distributed lamellated bony spicules on a background of fibrous stroma
  • The lesion has a zonal architecture with a center of immature bone surrounded by more mature lamellar bone.
  • The central spicules of woven bony trabeculae are lined by a layer of osteoblasts. The background is a loose and storiform fibrous tissue.
Non-ossifying Fibroma [41][42][43]
  • Clonal rearrangements in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 11, and 14 are noted in NOFs (non-ossifying fibroma) of bone
Desmoplastic Fibroma [44][45][46][47][48][49][50]
  • Strong positive for the adhesion protein β-Catenin
  • Weak positive labelling for S-100
  • No positive stain for the proliferation marker Ki67
  • No associated conditions
Pleural Fibroma [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62]
  • Composed of irregularly arranged fascicles comprising of spindle cells with collagen separation.
  • They originate from submesothelial mesenchymal cells.
  • Myxoid or cystic degeneration can occur.
  • Recurrent somatic fusions of the two genes, STAT6, located at chromosomal region 12q13, have been identified in pleural fibromas.
Cardiac Fibroma [63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72]
  • Well defined, solitary, intramyocardial lesions with smooth margins and usually large, with a mean diameter of ~5 cm
  • None
Renal Medullary Fibroma [73][74][75]
  • Small, and white well circumscribed nodule in medulla typically less than 3mm are characteristic findings of renal medullary fibroma
  • Small polygonal/stellate cells
  • Abundant loose/myxoid stroma
  • Entrapped renal tubules may be present
  • None
  • No associated conditions
Cemento-ossifying Fibroma [76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85]
  • Solid, sessile or pedunculated mass, which is often ulcerated, and generally has a diameter of less than 2 cm are characteristic findings of cemento-ossifying fibroma.
  • Cemento -ossifying tumors are composed of fibrous tissue, calcified tissue resembling bone and/or cementum.
  • The bone-like component is predominant reminiscent of woven bone and is found in more 'mature' lesions.
  • In some instances, this entity has been divided into cementifying fibroma and ossifying fibroma depending on the relative amounts of the tumor's constituent tissues.
  • Surface ulceration is common
  • None
  • No associated conditions
Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma [86][87][88][89][90][91]
  • FOSL1 gene is involved in the pathogenesis of desmoplastic fibroblastoma, llq 12 breakpoint described as being characteristic.
  • Beta-catenin -ve
  • Positive in desmoid-type fibromatosis
  • Desmin negative
  • S-100 negative
  • CD34 negative
  • MSA positive
  • Alpha-SMA positive
  • No associated conditions
Elastofibroma [92][93][94][95][96][97][98]
  • I'll defined, nonencapsulated, rubbery, firm, white lesion with interspersed fat and with moderate demarcation to surrounding tissue are characteristic findings of elastofibroma.
  • The tumors can be quite large (up to 20 cm), although most are around 5 cm.
  • No associated conditions
Sclerotic Fibroma [99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107]
  • Skin, may be solitary or multifocal
  • Well-delineated but unencapsulated mass of densely collagenized, hypocellular fibrous tissue with a storiform pattern, and prominent clefts between collagen bundles are characteristic findings of elastofibroma.
Giant cell fibroma [108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115]
  • None
  • No associated conditions
Peripheral Odontogenic Fibroma [116][117][118][119][120] Firm, slowly growing, sessile, and nodular growth of the gingiva are characteristic findings of peripheral odontogenic fibroma.
  • None
  • No associated conditions

Gross Pathology and Microscopic Pathology

Type of fibroma Gross image Microscopic image
Ovarian fibroma
Histopathology of ovarian fibroma showing benignspindle cellproliferation,Boujoual M, Hakimi I, Kouach J, Oukabli M, Moussaoui DR, Dehayni M. Large twisted ovarian fibroma in menopausal women: a case report. Pan Afr Med J. 2015;20:322. Published 2015 Apr 6. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.322.5998,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4491469/
Oral fibroma
Chondromyxoid fibroma
Uterine fibroma
Ossifying Fibroma
Histopathologicaly, this lesion is characterized by spindle cell proliferation packed with globular cementum droplets and round/ovoid fragments of woven bone. These spindle cells appear benign and associated with psammomatoid cementum droplets and some woven bone and consistent with aggressive ossifying fibroma, psammomatous type IV,Alghonaim Y, ALRashed ALHumaid S, Arafat A. Aggressive ossifying fibroma of right ethmoidal sinus: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. ;53:513–516. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2017.12.026,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290393/
Cardiac fibroma
Jha NK, Kiraly L, Tamas C, et al. Large cardiac fibroma and teratoma in children- case reports. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2015;10:38. Published 2015 Mar 22. doi:10.1186/s13019-015-0242-9,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373309/
Fibroblast cells in fascicles with abundant collagen fiber,Heidari A, Sabzi F, Faraji R. Right atrial fibroma in an adult patient. Ann Card Anaesth. 2018;21(1):65–67. doi:10.4103/aca.ACA_121_17,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791493/
Giant cell fibroma
Pebbly appearance in right retromolar region,Sabarinath B, Sivaramakrishnan M, Sivapathasundharam B. Giant cell fibroma: A clinicopathological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2012;16(3):359–362. doi:10.4103/0973-029X.102485,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519210/
Artifactual spacing was observed surrounding the giant cells,Sabarinath B, Sivaramakrishnan M, Sivapathasundharam B. Giant cell fibroma: A clinicopathological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2012;16(3):359–362. doi:10.4103/0973-029X.102485,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519210/
Peripheral odontogenic fibroma
Baiju CS, Rohatgi S. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: A case report and review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2011;15(3):273–275. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.85674,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3200026/
Baiju CS, Rohatgi S. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: A case report and review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2011;15(3):273–275. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.85674,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3200026/
Elastofibroma
The typical location for bilateral elastofibroma dorsi in prone position and with slightly abducted arm,Sarici IS, Basbay E, Mustu M, et al. Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. ;5(12):1139–1141. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.10.032,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4275815/
High Power slide showing elastic fibres (pink areas) which confirms the diagnosis of elastofibroma. (Altered elastic fibres in a collagenous matrix),Pillay Y, Sabarathnam R. Elasto fibroma Dorsi: a case report of bilateral tumours and excision of the symptomatic lesion in a male patient. J Surg Case Rep. 2017;2017(11):rjx206. Published 2017 Nov 7. doi:10.1093/jscr/rjx206,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691368/
Desmoplastic fibroblastoma
Grewal R, Natter P, Makary R, Silliman J. Desmoplastic fibroblastoma of the left upper arm. BMJ Case Rep. 2018;2018:bcr2017221738. Published 2018 Jan 26. doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-221738,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786997/
Renal medullary fibroma
Renal medullary fibroma showing a firm grayish yellow calcified tumor (black arrow), renal hilum (white arrow),Kumar S, Choudhary GR, Nanjappa B, Bal A. Benign medullary fibroma of the kidney: a rare diagnostic dilemma. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2013;3:43. Published 2013 Oct 29. doi:10.4103/2156-7514.120776,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823390/
H&E stain showing bland spindle-shaped cells occurring singly within a loose stromal matrix (black arrow) and separated by thick collagen bundles (white arrow),Kumar S, Choudhary GR, Nanjappa B, Bal A. Benign medullary fibroma of the kidney: a rare diagnostic dilemma. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2013;3:43. Published 2013 Oct 29. doi:10.4103/2156-7514.120776,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823390/
Pleural fibroma
Single multi nodular encapsulated pale white firm piece of tissue,Hassan S, Husain SS, Anwar MA, Saeed S. Pleural Fibroma; A meandering path to surgical removal. Pak J Med Sci. 2015;31(1):236–238. doi:10.12669/pjms.311.5517,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4386196/

Pathophysiology

Physiology

The normal physiology of [name of process] can be understood as follows:

Pathogenesis

  • The exact pathogenesis of [disease name] is not completely understood.

OR

  • It is understood that [disease name] is the result of / is mediated by / is produced by / is caused by either [hypothesis 1], [hypothesis 2], or [hypothesis 3].
  • [Pathogen name] is usually transmitted via the [transmission route] route to the human host.
  • Following transmission/ingestion, the [pathogen] uses the [entry site] to invade the [cell name] cell.
  • [Disease or malignancy name] arises from [cell name]s, which are [cell type] cells that are normally involved in [function of cells].
  • The progression to [disease name] usually involves the [molecular pathway].
  • The pathophysiology of [disease/malignancy] depends on the histological subtype.

Genetics

[Disease name] is transmitted in [mode of genetic transmission] pattern.

OR

Genes involved in the pathogenesis of [disease name] include:

  • [Gene1]
  • [Gene2]
  • [Gene3]

OR

The development of [disease name] is the result of multiple genetic mutations such as:

  • [Mutation 1]
  • [Mutation 2]
  • [Mutation 3]

Associated Conditions

Conditions associated with [disease name] include:

  • [Condition 1]
  • [Condition 2]
  • [Condition 3]


Type of fibroma Location Gross pathology Microscpoic pathology Genetics and Immunohistochemistry Associated conditions
Ovarian Fibroma [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
  • None
Oral Fibroma [11][12][13]
  • None
Chondromyxoid fibroma [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]
  • Well circumscribed, metaphyseal lesion, and fragments of white-grey rubbery tissue are noted
  • None
Uterine fibroma [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]
  • Round, well circumscribed (but not encapsulated), solid nodules that are white or tan, and show whorled appearance
Ossifying Fibroma [34][35][36][37][38][39][40]
  • Discrete mass that is well delineated from surrounding bone, tan-white, rubbery cut surface, firm to gritty and no encapsulation
  • They comprise of haphazardly distributed lamellated bony spicules on a background of fibrous stroma
  • The lesion has a zonal architecture with a center of immature bone surrounded by more mature lamellar bone.
  • The central spicules of woven bony trabeculae are lined by a layer of osteoblasts. The background is a loose and storiform fibrous tissue.
Non-ossifying Fibroma [41][42][43]
  • Clonal rearrangements in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 11, and 14 are noted in NOFs (non-ossifying fibroma) of bone
Desmoplastic Fibroma [44][45][46][47][48][49][50]
  • Strong positive for the adhesion protein β-Catenin
  • Weak positive labelling for S-100
  • No positive stain for the proliferation marker Ki67
  • No associated conditions
Pleural Fibroma [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62]
  • Composed of irregularly arranged fascicles comprising of spindle cells with collagen separation.
  • They originate from submesothelial mesenchymal cells.
  • Myxoid or cystic degeneration can occur.
  • Recurrent somatic fusions of the two genes, STAT6, located at chromosomal region 12q13, have been identified in pleural fibromas.
Cardiac Fibroma [63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72]
  • Well defined, solitary, intramyocardial lesions with smooth margins and usually large, with a mean diameter of ~5 cm
  • None
Renal Medullary Fibroma [73][74][75]
  • Small, and white well circumscribed nodule in medulla typically less than 3mm are characteristic findings of renal medullary fibroma
  • Small polygonal/stellate cells
  • Abundant loose/myxoid stroma
  • Entrapped renal tubules may be present
  • None
  • No associated conditions
Cemento-ossifying Fibroma [76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85]
  • Solid, sessile or pedunculated mass, which is often ulcerated, and generally has a diameter of less than 2 cm are characteristic findings of cemento-ossifying fibroma.
  • Cemento -ossifying tumors are composed of fibrous tissue, calcified tissue resembling bone and/or cementum.
  • The bone-like component is predominant reminiscent of woven bone and is found in more 'mature' lesions.
  • In some instances, this entity has been divided into cementifying fibroma and ossifying fibroma depending on the relative amounts of the tumor's constituent tissues.
  • Surface ulceration is common
  • None
  • No associated conditions
Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma [86][87][88][89][90][91]
  • FOSL1 gene is involved in the pathogenesis of desmoplastic fibroblastoma, llq 12 breakpoint described as being characteristic.
  • Beta-catenin -ve
  • Positive in desmoid-type fibromatosis
  • Desmin negative
  • S-100 negative
  • CD34 negative
  • MSA positive
  • Alpha-SMA positive
  • No associated conditions
Elastofibroma [92][93][94][95][96][97][98]
  • I'll defined, nonencapsulated, rubbery, firm, white lesion with interspersed fat and with moderate demarcation to surrounding tissue are characteristic findings of elastofibroma.
  • The tumors can be quite large (up to 20 cm), although most are around 5 cm.
  • No associated conditions
Sclerotic Fibroma [99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107]
  • Skin, may be solitary or multifocal
  • Well-delineated but unencapsulated mass of densely collagenized, hypocellular fibrous tissue with a storiform pattern, and prominent clefts between collagen bundles are characteristic findings of elastofibroma.
Giant cell fibroma [108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115]
  • None
  • No associated conditions
Peripheral Odontogenic Fibroma [116][117][118][119][120] Firm, slowly growing, sessile, and nodular growth of the gingiva are characteristic findings of peripheral odontogenic fibroma.
  • None
  • No associated conditions
Type of fibroma Gross image Microscopic image
Ovarian fibroma
Histopathology of ovarian fibroma showing benignspindle cellproliferation,Boujoual M, Hakimi I, Kouach J, Oukabli M, Moussaoui DR, Dehayni M. Large twisted ovarian fibroma in menopausal women: a case report. Pan Afr Med J. 2015;20:322. Published 2015 Apr 6. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.322.5998,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4491469/
Oral fibroma
Chondromyxoid fibroma
Uterine fibroma
Ossifying Fibroma
Histopathologicaly, this lesion is characterized by spindle cell proliferation packed with globular cementum droplets and round/ovoid fragments of woven bone. These spindle cells appear benign and associated with psammomatoid cementum droplets and some woven bone and consistent with aggressive ossifying fibroma, psammomatous type IV,Alghonaim Y, ALRashed ALHumaid S, Arafat A. Aggressive ossifying fibroma of right ethmoidal sinus: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. ;53:513–516. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2017.12.026,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290393/
Cardiac fibroma
Jha NK, Kiraly L, Tamas C, et al. Large cardiac fibroma and teratoma in children- case reports. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2015;10:38. Published 2015 Mar 22. doi:10.1186/s13019-015-0242-9,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373309/
Fibroblast cells in fascicles with abundant collagen fiber,Heidari A, Sabzi F, Faraji R. Right atrial fibroma in an adult patient. Ann Card Anaesth. 2018;21(1):65–67. doi:10.4103/aca.ACA_121_17,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791493/
Giant cell fibroma
Pebbly appearance in right retromolar region,Sabarinath B, Sivaramakrishnan M, Sivapathasundharam B. Giant cell fibroma: A clinicopathological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2012;16(3):359–362. doi:10.4103/0973-029X.102485,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519210/
Artifactual spacing was observed surrounding the giant cells,Sabarinath B, Sivaramakrishnan M, Sivapathasundharam B. Giant cell fibroma: A clinicopathological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2012;16(3):359–362. doi:10.4103/0973-029X.102485,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519210/
Peripheral odontogenic fibroma
Baiju CS, Rohatgi S. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: A case report and review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2011;15(3):273–275. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.85674,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3200026/
Baiju CS, Rohatgi S. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: A case report and review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2011;15(3):273–275. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.85674,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3200026/
Elastofibroma
The typical location for bilateral elastofibroma dorsi in prone position and with slightly abducted arm,Sarici IS, Basbay E, Mustu M, et al. Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. ;5(12):1139–1141. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.10.032,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4275815/
High Power slide showing elastic fibres (pink areas) which confirms the diagnosis of elastofibroma. (Altered elastic fibres in a collagenous matrix),Pillay Y, Sabarathnam R. Elasto fibroma Dorsi: a case report of bilateral tumours and excision of the symptomatic lesion in a male patient. J Surg Case Rep. 2017;2017(11):rjx206. Published 2017 Nov 7. doi:10.1093/jscr/rjx206,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691368/
Desmoplastic fibroblastoma
Grewal R, Natter P, Makary R, Silliman J. Desmoplastic fibroblastoma of the left upper arm. BMJ Case Rep. 2018;2018:bcr2017221738. Published 2018 Jan 26. doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-221738,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786997/
Renal medullary fibroma
Renal medullary fibroma showing a firm grayish yellow calcified tumor (black arrow), renal hilum (white arrow),Kumar S, Choudhary GR, Nanjappa B, Bal A. Benign medullary fibroma of the kidney: a rare diagnostic dilemma. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2013;3:43. Published 2013 Oct 29. doi:10.4103/2156-7514.120776,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823390/
H&E stain showing bland spindle-shaped cells occurring singly within a loose stromal matrix (black arrow) and separated by thick collagen bundles (white arrow),Kumar S, Choudhary GR, Nanjappa B, Bal A. Benign medullary fibroma of the kidney: a rare diagnostic dilemma. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2013;3:43. Published 2013 Oct 29. doi:10.4103/2156-7514.120776,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823390/
Pleural fibroma
Single multi nodular encapsulated pale white firm piece of tissue,Hassan S, Husain SS, Anwar MA, Saeed S. Pleural Fibroma; A meandering path to surgical removal. Pak J Med Sci. 2015;31(1):236–238. doi:10.12669/pjms.311.5517,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4386196/

References

  1. Fibroma. Libre pathology(2015) http://librepathology.org/wiki/Fibroma Accessed on March 12, 2016
  2. Fibroma. Radiopedia(2015) http://radiopaedia.org/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=fibroma&scope=all Accessed on March 12, 2016
  3. 3.0 3.1 Boujoual M, Hakimi I, Kouach J, Oukabli M, Moussaoui DR, Dehayni M (2015). "Large twisted ovarian fibroma in menopausal women: a case report". Pan Afr Med J. 20: 322. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.322.5998. PMC 4491469. PMID 26175813.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Chen H, Liu Y, Shen LF, Jiang MJ, Yang ZF, Fang GP (November 2016). "Ovarian thecoma-fibroma groups: clinical and sonographic features with pathological comparison". J Ovarian Res. 9 (1): 81. doi:10.1186/s13048-016-0291-2. PMC 5120502. PMID 27876070.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Matsuda K, Tateishi S, Akazawa Y, Kinoshita A, Yoshida S, Morisaki S, Fukushima A, Matsuwaki T, Yoshiura KI, Nakashima M (October 2016). "Rapid growth of mitotically active cellular fibroma of the ovary: a case report and review of the literature". Diagn Pathol. 11 (1): 101. doi:10.1186/s13000-016-0554-7. PMID 27770806.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Yamada T, Hattori K, Satomi H, Hirose Y, Nakai G, Daimon A, Hayashi A, Terai Y, Ohmichi M, Fukunaga M (October 2015). "Mitotically active cellular fibroma of the ovary: a case report and literature review". J Ovarian Res. 8: 65. doi:10.1186/s13048-015-0191-x. PMC 4595272. PMID 26437718.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Zong L, Lin M, Fan X (2014). "Mitotically active cellular fibroma of ovary should be differentiated from fibrosarcoma: a case report and review of literature". Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 7 (11): 7578–82. PMC 4270577. PMID 25550794.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Parwate NS, Patel SM, Arora R, Gupta M (December 2016). "Ovarian Fibroma: A Clinico-pathological Study of 23 Cases with Review of Literature". J Obstet Gynaecol India. 66 (6): 460–465. doi:10.1007/s13224-015-0717-6. PMC 5080219. PMID 27821988.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Finch T, Pushpanathan C, Brown K, El-Gohary Y (June 2012). "Gorlin syndrome presenting with a unilateral ovarian fibroma in a 22-year-old woman: a case report". J Med Case Rep. 6: 148. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-148. PMID 22691621.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Yazdani S, Alijanpoor A, Sharbatdaran M, Bouzari Z, Abedisamakoosh M, Lakaieandi F, Mohammadpour M (2014). "Meigs' syndrome with elevated serum CA125 in a case of ovarian fibroma /thecoma". Caspian J Intern Med. 5 (1): 43–5. PMC 3894471. PMID 24490014.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Panta P (2015). "Traumatic fibroma". Pan Afr Med J. 21: 220. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.21.220.7498. PMC 4587079. PMID 26448815.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Christopoulos P, Sklavounou A, Patrikiou A (April 1994). "True fibroma of the oral mucosa: a case report". Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 23 (2): 98–9. PMID 8035060.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Krishnan V, Shunmugavelu K (2015). "A clinical challenging situation of intra oral fibroma mimicking pyogenic granuloma". Pan Afr Med J. 22: 263. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.22.263.8080. PMC 4765330. PMID 26958126.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Takenaga RK, Frassica FJ, McCarthy EF (2007). "Subperiosteal chondromyxoid fibroma: a report of two cases". Iowa Orthop J. 27: 104–7. PMC 2150655. PMID 17907440.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Sharma H, Jane MJ, Reid R (June 2006). "Chondromyxoid fibroma of the foot and ankle: 40 years' Scottish bone tumour registry experience". Int Orthop. 30 (3): 205–9. doi:10.1007/s00264-005-0046-y. PMC 2532097. PMID 16547720.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Yasuda T, Nishio J, Sumegi J, Kapels KM, Althof PA, Sawyer JR, Reith JD, Bridge JA (November 2009). "Aberrations of 6q13 mapped to the COL12A1 locus in chondromyxoid fibroma". Mod. Pathol. 22 (11): 1499–506. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2009.101. PMID 19648885.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Choi YS, Kim BS, Joo JE, Park YK, Lee SH, Song BY (2011). "A rare case of epiphyseal chondromyxoid fibroma of the proximal tibia". Korean J Radiol. 12 (6): 761–4. doi:10.3348/kjr.2011.12.6.761. PMC 3194784. PMID 22043162.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Gutiérrez-González R, De Reina L, Saab A, Jiménez-Heffernan J, García-Uría J (June 2012). "Chondromyxoid fibroma of the lumbar spine: case report and literature review". Eur Spine J. 21 Suppl 4: S458–62. doi:10.1007/s00586-011-2078-x. PMID 22094389.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Morris LG, Rihani J, Lebowitz RA, Wang BY (June 2009). "Chondromyxoid fibroma of sphenoid sinus with unusual calcifications: case report with literature review". Head Neck Pathol. 3 (2): 169–73. doi:10.1007/s12105-009-0121-6. PMID 19644549.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Minasian T, Claus C, Hariri OR, Piao Z, Quadri SA, Yuhan R, Leong D, Tashjian V (2016). "Chondromyxoid fibroma of the sacrum: A case report and literature review". Surg Neurol Int. 7 (Suppl 13): S370–4. doi:10.4103/2152-7806.182547. PMC 4879845. PMID 27274412.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Kilic D, Findikcioglu A, Tepeoglu M, Vural C (August 2015). "Chondromyxoid Fibroma of the Sternum in a 63-Year-Old Woman". Tex Heart Inst J. 42 (4): 400–2. doi:10.14503/THIJ-14-4381. PMC 4567104. PMID 26413029.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Fomete B, Adeosun OO, Awelimobor DI, Olayemi L (January 2014). "Chondromyxoid fibroma of the mandible: Case report and review of the literature". Ann Maxillofac Surg. 4 (1): 78–80. doi:10.4103/2231-0746.133072. PMC 4073468. PMID 24987604.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Manta L, Suciu N, Toader O, Purcărea RM, Constantin A, Popa F (2016). "The etiopathogenesis of uterine fibromatosis". J Med Life. 9 (1): 39–45. PMC 5152611. PMID 27974911.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Borahay MA, Al-Hendy A, Kilic GS, Boehning D (April 2015). "Signaling Pathways in Leiomyoma: Understanding Pathobiology and Implications for Therapy". Mol. Med. 21: 242–56. doi:10.2119/molmed.2014.00053. PMC 4503645. PMID 25879625.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Miettinen M, Felisiak-Golabek A, Wasag B, Chmara M, Wang Z, Butzow R, Lasota J (December 2016). "Fumarase-deficient Uterine Leiomyomas: An Immunohistochemical, Molecular Genetic, and Clinicopathologic Study of 86 Cases". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 40 (12): 1661–1669. doi:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000703. PMC 5106328. PMID 27454940.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Commandeur AE, Styer AK, Teixeira JM (2015). "Epidemiological and genetic clues for molecular mechanisms involved in uterine leiomyoma development and growth". Hum. Reprod. Update. 21 (5): 593–615. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmv030. PMC 4533663. PMID 26141720.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Flake GP, Andersen J, Dixon D (June 2003). "Etiology and pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas: a review". Environ. Health Perspect. 111 (8): 1037–54. doi:10.1289/ehp.5787. PMC 1241553. PMID 12826476.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Lobel MK, Somasundaram P, Morton CC (March 2006). "The genetic heterogeneity of uterine leiomyomata". Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am. 33 (1): 13–39. doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2005.12.006. PMID 16504804.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Wolańska M, Bańkowski E (February 2007). "Transforming growth factor beta and platelet-derived growth factor in human myometrium and in uterine leiomyomas at various stages of tumour growth". Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 130 (2): 238–44. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.01.034. PMID 16564125.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Baird DD, Kesner JS, Dunson DB (February 2006). "Luteinizing hormone in premenopausal women may stimulate uterine leiomyomata development". J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. 13 (2): 130–5. doi:10.1016/j.jsgi.2005.12.001. PMID 16443507.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Andersen J (August 1996). "Growth factors and cytokines in uterine leiomyomas". Semin. Reprod. Endocrinol. 14 (3): 269–82. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1016336. PMID 8885057.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Laganà AS, Vergara D, Favilli A, La Rosa VL, Tinelli A, Gerli S, Noventa M, Vitagliano A, Triolo O, Rapisarda A, Vitale SG (November 2017). "Epigenetic and genetic landscape of uterine leiomyomas: a current view over a common gynecological disease". Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 296 (5): 855–867. doi:10.1007/s00404-017-4515-5. PMID 28875276. Vancouver style error: initials (help)
  33. 33.0 33.1 Koutsilieris M (May 1992). "Pathophysiology of uterine leiomyomas". Biochem. Cell Biol. 70 (5): 273–8. PMID 1323302.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Wang TT, Zhang R, Wang L, Chen Y, Dong Q, Li TJ (March 2014). "Two cases of multiple ossifying fibromas in the jaws". Diagn Pathol. 9: 75. doi:10.1186/1746-1596-9-75. PMC 3974450. PMID 24678936.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Chen Y, Hu DY, Wang TT, Zhang R, Dong Q, Xu ZX, Wang L, Li TJ (September 2016). "CDC73 gene mutations in sporadic ossifying fibroma of the jaws". Diagn Pathol. 11 (1): 91. doi:10.1186/s13000-016-0532-0. PMC 5034632. PMID 27658992.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Maria A, Sharma Y, Malik M (December 2013). "Juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible: a case report". J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 12 (4): 447–50. doi:10.1007/s12663-010-0122-8. PMID 24431886.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Alghonaim Y, ALRashed ALHumaid S, Arafat A (2018). "Aggressive ossifying fibroma of right ethmoidal sinus: A case report". Int J Surg Case Rep. 53: 513–516. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2017.12.026. PMC 6290393. PMID 29373206.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Liu Y, Shan XF, Guo XS, Xie S, Cai ZG (2017). "Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Ossifying Fibroma in the Jaws of Children: A Retrospective Study". J Cancer. 8 (17): 3592–3597. doi:10.7150/jca.21556. PMC 5687175. PMID 29151945.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Liu JJ, Thompson LD, Janisiewicz AM, Shibuya TY, Keschner DB, Garg R, Lee JT (March 2017). "Ossifying fibroma of the maxilla and sinonasal tract: Case series". Allergy Rhinol (Providence). 8 (1): 32–36. doi:10.2500/ar.2017.8.0190. PMC 5380450. PMID 28381325.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Misra SR, Saigal A, Rastogi V, Priyadarshini SR, Pati AR (January 2015). "Giant central ossifying fibroma of the maxilla presenting with a pus discharging intra-oral sinus". J Clin Diagn Res. 9 (1): ZD08–11. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2015/11192.5417. PMC 4347180. PMID 25738089.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Bowers LM, Cohen DM, Bhattacharyya I, Pettigrew JC, Stavropoulos MF (June 2013). "The non-ossifying fibroma: a case report and review of the literature". Head Neck Pathol. 7 (2): 203–10. doi:10.1007/s12105-012-0399-7. PMID 23008139.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Herget GW, Mauer D, Krauß T, El Tayeh A, Uhl M, Südkamp NP, Hauschild O (April 2016). "Non-ossifying fibroma: natural history with an emphasis on a stage-related growth, fracture risk and the need for follow-up". BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 17: 147. doi:10.1186/s12891-016-1004-0. PMC 4820930. PMID 27044378.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Goldin A, Muzykewicz DA, Dwek J, Mubarak SJ (October 2017). "The aetiology of the non-ossifying fibroma of the distal femur and its relationship to the surrounding soft tissues". J Child Orthop. 11 (5): 373–379. doi:10.1302/1863-2548.11.170068. PMC 5643931. PMID 29081852.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Schneider M, Zimmermann AC, Depprich RA, Kübler NR, Engers R, Naujoks CD, Handschel J (November 2009). "Desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible--review of the literature and presentation of a rare case". Head Face Med. 5: 25. doi:10.1186/1746-160X-5-25. PMID 19930688.
  45. 45.0 45.1 Nedopil A, Raab P, Rudert M (2013). "Desmoplastic fibroma: a case report with three years of clinical and radiographic observation and review of the literature". Open Orthop J. 8: 40–6. doi:10.2174/1874325001307010040. PMID 23459513.
  46. 46.0 46.1 Gong YB, Qu LM, Qi X, Liu JG (October 2015). "Desmoplastic fibroma in the proximal femur: A case report with long-term follow-up". Oncol Lett. 10 (4): 2465–2467. doi:10.3892/ol.2015.3603. PMID 26622872.
  47. 47.0 47.1 Daneyemez M, Akay KM, Izci Y (October 2005). "Desmoplastic fibroma of the cervical spine". Eur Spine J. 14 (8): 799–802. doi:10.1007/s00586-005-0904-8. PMID 15937674.
  48. 48.0 48.1 Woods TR, Cohen DM, Islam MN, Rawal Y, Bhattacharyya I (June 2015). "Desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible: a series of three cases and review of literature". Head Neck Pathol. 9 (2): 196–204. doi:10.1007/s12105-014-0561-5. PMID 25113037.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Goyal T, Rastogi S, Tripathy SK (March 2013). "Desmoplastic fibroma of ulna: Excision and reconstruction of olecranon with a fibular graft". Indian J Orthop. 47 (2): 207–10. doi:10.4103/0019-5413.108928. PMC 3654474. PMID 23682186.
  50. 50.0 50.1 Evans S, Ramasamy A, Jeys L, Grimer R (November 2014). "Desmoplastic fibroma of bone: A rare bone tumour". J Bone Oncol. 3 (3–4): 77–9. doi:10.1016/j.jbo.2014.08.001. PMC 4723648. PMID 26909301.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Aremu AA, Oyedeji OA, Asaleye CM, Adetiloye VA (2013). "An elusive chest coin in an African child: a pleural fibroma's long, tortuous path to freedom". Pan Afr Med J. 14: 16. doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.14.16.1874. PMC 3597858. PMID 23503999.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Hassan S, Husain SS, Anwar MA, Saeed S (2015). "Pleural Fibroma; A meandering path to surgical removal". Pak J Med Sci. 31 (1): 236–8. doi:10.12669/pjms.311.5517. PMC 4386196. PMID 25878653.
  53. 53.0 53.1 Ali JM, Ali A, Van Leuven M, Bartosik WR (July 2017). "Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura an unpredictable entity: case series and literature review". Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 99 (6): e165–e171. doi:10.1308/rcsann.2017.0067. PMC 5696978. PMID 28660826.
  54. 54.0 54.1 Supakul R, Sodhi A, Tamashiro CY, Azmi SS, Kadaria D (December 2015). "Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura: A Rare Cause of Pleural Mass". Am J Case Rep. 16: 854–7. PMC 4671454. PMID 26632548.
  55. 55.0 55.1 Guo W, Xiao HL, Jiang YG, Wang RW, Zhao YP, Ma Z, Niu HJ (October 2011). "Retrospective analysis for thirty-nine patients with solitary fibrous tumor of pleura and review of the literature". World J Surg Oncol. 9: 134. doi:10.1186/1477-7819-9-134. PMC 3214850. PMID 22014289.
  56. 56.0 56.1 Chu X, Zhang L, Xue Z, Ren Z, Sun YE, Wang M, Liu M (April 2012). "Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: An analysis of forty patients". J Thorac Dis. 4 (2): 146–54. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.01.05. PMID 22833820.
  57. 57.0 57.1 Guo J, Chu X, Sun YE, Zhang L, Zhou N (November 2010). "Giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: an analysis of five patients". World J Surg. 34 (11): 2553–7. doi:10.1007/s00268-010-0715-x. PMC 2949573. PMID 20628740.
  58. 58.0 58.1 Moat NE, Teale JD, Lea RE, Matthews AW (December 1991). "Spontaneous hypoglycaemia and pleural fibroma: role of insulin like growth factors". Thorax. 46 (12): 932–3. doi:10.1136/thx.46.12.932. PMC 463503. PMID 1792644.
  59. 59.0 59.1 Masson EA, MacFarlane IA, Graham D, Foy P (December 1991). "Spontaneous hypoglycaemia due to a pleural fibroma: role of insulin like growth factors". Thorax. 46 (12): 930–1. doi:10.1136/thx.46.12.930. PMID 1792643.
  60. 60.0 60.1 Vejvodova S, Spidlen V, Mukensnabl P, Krakorova G, Molacek J, Vodicka J (February 2017). "Solitary Fibrous Tumor - Less Common Neoplasms of the Pleural Cavity". Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 23 (1): 12–18. doi:10.5761/atcs.oa.16-00108. PMC 5347482. PMID 28049955.
  61. 61.0 61.1 Rahnemai-Azar AA, Rahnemai-Aazr AA, Robinson P, Pham S (July 2013). "Solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura masquerading as catecholamine-secreting paraganglioma". BMJ Case Rep. 2013. doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-009939. PMC 3736364. PMID 23832995.
  62. 62.0 62.1 Ichiki Y, Kakizoe K, Hamatsu T, Matsuyama A, Suehiro T, Tanaka F, Hisaoka M, Sugimachi K (December 2017). "Solitary fibrous tumor of the lung: a case report". Surg Case Rep. 3 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/s40792-016-0286-7. PMC 5218951. PMID 28063145.
  63. 63.0 63.1 Torimitsu S, Nemoto T, Wakayama M, Okubo Y, Yokose T, Kitahara K, Ozawa T, Nakayama H, Shinozaki M, Sasai D, Ishiwatari T, Takuma K, Shibuya K (March 2012). "Literature survey on epidemiology and pathology of cardiac fibroma". Eur. J. Med. Res. 17: 5. doi:10.1186/2047-783X-17-5. PMC 3351722. PMID 22472419.
  64. 64.0 64.1 Jha NK, Kiraly L, Tamas C, Talo H, Khan MD, El Badaoui H, Jain A, Hammad A (March 2015). "Large cardiac fibroma and teratoma in children- case reports". J Cardiothorac Surg. 10: 38. doi:10.1186/s13019-015-0242-9. PMC 4373309. PMID 25887953.
  65. 65.0 65.1 Busch U, Kampmann C, Meyer R, Sandring KH, Hausdorf G, Konertz W (1995). "Removal of a giant cardiac fibroma from a 4-year-old child". Tex Heart Inst J. 22 (3): 261–4. PMC 325263. PMID 7580366.
  66. 66.0 66.1 Bossert T, Walther T, Vondrys D, Gummert JF, Kostelka M, Mohr FW (2006). "Cardiac fibroma as an inherited manifestation of nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome". Tex Heart Inst J. 33 (1): 88–90. PMC 1413607. PMID 16572881.
  67. 67.0 67.1 Heidari A, Sabzi F, Faraji R (2018). "Right atrial fibroma in an adult patient". Ann Card Anaesth. 21 (1): 65–67. doi:10.4103/aca.ACA_121_17. PMC 5791493. PMID 29336396.
  68. 68.0 68.1 Scanlan D, Radio SJ, Nelson M, Zhou M, Streblow R, Prasad V, Reyes C, Perry D, Fletcher S, Bridge JA (2008). "Loss of the PTCH1 gene locus in cardiac fibroma". Cardiovasc. Pathol. 17 (2): 93–7. doi:10.1016/j.carpath.2007.08.001. PMC 2342874. PMID 18329553.
  69. 69.0 69.1 Ying L, Lin R, Gao Z, Qi J, Zhang Z, Gu W (April 2016). "Primary cardiac tumors in children: a center's experience". J Cardiothorac Surg. 11 (1): 52. doi:10.1186/s13019-016-0448-5. PMID 27067427.
  70. 70.0 70.1 Yadava OP (2012). "Cardiac tumours in infancy". Indian Heart J. 64 (5): 492–6. doi:10.1016/j.ihj.2012.05.004. PMC 3861228. PMID 23102388.
  71. 71.0 71.1 Cho SH, Fritz T, Cronin LJ, Cohle SD (2015). "Primary Cardiac Fibroma in an Adult". Case Rep Cardiol. 2015: 713702. doi:10.1155/2015/713702. PMID 26457206.
  72. 72.0 72.1 Mecchia D, Lavezzi AM, Matturri L (2013). "Primary Cardiac Fibroma and Cardiac Conduction System Alterations in a Case of Sudden Death of a 4-month-old Infant". Open Cardiovasc Med J. 7: 47–9. doi:10.2174/1874192401307010047. PMC 3706798. PMID 23847693.
  73. 73.0 73.1 Kumar S, Choudhary GR, Nanjappa B, Bal A (2013). "Benign medullary fibroma of the kidney: a rare diagnostic dilemma". J Clin Imaging Sci. 3: 43. doi:10.4103/2156-7514.120776. PMC 3823390. PMID 24228211.
  74. 74.0 74.1 Bircan S, Orhan D, Tulunay O, Safak M (2000). "Renomedullary interstitial cell tumor". Urol. Int. 65 (3): 163–6. doi:10.1159/000064864. PMID 11054036.
  75. 75.0 75.1 Bazzi WM, Huang H, Al-Ahmadie H, Russo P (May 2014). "Clinicopathologic features of renomedullary interstitial cell tumor presenting as the main solid renal mass". Urology. 83 (5): 1104–6. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2014.01.008. PMID 24642074.
  76. 76.0 76.1 Bala TK, Soni S, Dayal P, Ghosh I (May 2017). "Cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible. A clinicopathological report". Saudi Med J. 38 (5): 541–545. doi:10.15537/smj.2017.5.15643. PMC 5447217. PMID 28439606.
  77. 77.0 77.1 Chatterjee A, Ajmera N, Singh A (July 2010). "Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma of maxilla". J Indian Soc Periodontol. 14 (3): 186–9. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.75915. PMC 3100863. PMID 21760674.
  78. 78.0 78.1 Mishra AK, Maru R, Dhodapkar SV, Jaiswal G, Kumar R, Punjabi H (June 2013). "Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: A case report with review of literature". World J Clin Cases. 1 (3): 128–33. doi:10.12998/wjcc.v1.i3.128. PMC 3845913. PMID 24303483.
  79. 79.0 79.1 Dalghous A, Alkhabuli JO (June 2007). "Cemento-ossifying fibroma occurring in an elderly patient. A case report and a review of literature". Libyan J Med. 2 (2): 95–8. doi:10.4176/061220. PMC 3078280. PMID 21503260.
  80. 80.0 80.1 Hekmatnia A, Ghazavi A, Saboori M, Mahzouni P, Tayari N, Hekmatnia F (February 2011). "A case report of cemento-ossifying fibroma presenting as a mass of the ethmoid sinus". J Res Med Sci. 16 (2): 224–8. PMC 3214308. PMID 22091236.
  81. 81.0 81.1 Katti G, Khan MM, Chaubey SS, Amena M (May 2016). "Cemento-ossifying fibroma of the jaw". BMJ Case Rep. 2016. doi:10.1136/bcr-2015-214327. PMC 4885328. PMID 27174452.
  82. 82.0 82.1 Ram R, Singhal A, Singhal P (January 2012). "Cemento-ossifying fibroma". Contemp Clin Dent. 3 (1): 83–5. doi:10.4103/0976-237X.94553. PMC 3341766. PMID 22557904.
  83. 83.0 83.1 Sah K, Kale AD, Hallikerimath S, Chandra S (April 2012). "Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: Report of a recurrence case". Contemp Clin Dent. 3 (Suppl 1): S23–5. doi:10.4103/0976-237X.95098. PMC 3354807. PMID 22629060.
  84. 84.0 84.1 Naik RM, Guruprasad Y, Sujatha D, Gurudath S, Pai A, Suresh K (January 2014). "Giant cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible". J Nat Sci Biol Med. 5 (1): 190–4. doi:10.4103/0976-9668.127326. PMC 3961933. PMID 24678226.
  85. 85.0 85.1 Pereira, Thaís dos Santos Fontes; Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; França, Josiane Alves; Moreira, Rennan Garcias; Menezes, Grazielle Helena Ferreira de; Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira de; Castro, Wagner Henriques de; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago (2018). "The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is deregulated in cemento-ossifying fibromas". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 125 (2): 172–178. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2017.10.004. ISSN 2212-4403.
  86. 86.0 86.1 de Sousa SF, Caldeira PC, Grossmann Sde M, de Aguiar MC, Mesquita RA (June 2011). "Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (collagenous fibroma): a case identified in the buccal mucosa". Head Neck Pathol. 5 (2): 175–9. doi:10.1007/s12105-010-0239-6. PMID 21221866.
  87. 87.0 87.1 Pereira TD, de Lacerda JC, Porto-Matias MD, de Jesus AO, Gomez RS, Mesquita RA (February 2016). "Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (collagenous fibroma) of the oral cavity". J Clin Exp Dent. 8 (1): e89–92. doi:10.4317/jced.52605. PMID 26855713.
  88. 88.0 88.1 Grewal R, Natter P, Makary R, Silliman J (January 2018). "Desmoplastic fibroblastoma of the left upper arm". BMJ Case Rep. 2018. doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-221738. PMID 29374633.
  89. 89.0 89.1 Osipov V, Carrera GF (2009). "Collagenous fibroma (desmoplastic fibroblastoma) with vertebral body erosion". Sarcoma. 2009: 682687. doi:10.1155/2009/682687. PMID 19503798.
  90. 90.0 90.1 Nagaraja V, Coleman HG, Morgan GJ (September 2013). "Desmoplastic fibroblastoma presenting as a parotid tumour: a case report and review of the literature". Head Neck Pathol. 7 (3): 285–90. doi:10.1007/s12105-013-0435-2. PMC 3738752. PMID 23504494.
  91. 91.0 91.1 Kim JH, Oh DY, Kim SW, Lee JH, Ahn ST, Rhie JW (January 2012). "Desmoplastic fibroblastoma of the finger tip in an adult". Arch Plast Surg. 39 (1): 84–6. doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.1.84. PMC 3385291. PMID 22783503.
  92. 92.0 92.1 Darling MR, Kutalowski M, MacPherson DG, Jackson-Boeters L, Wysocki GP (September 2011). "Oral elastofibromatous lesions: a review and case series". Head Neck Pathol. 5 (3): 254–8. doi:10.1007/s12105-011-0274-y. PMC 3173539. PMID 21681661.
  93. 93.0 93.1 Daum O, Ferda J, Curik R, Choc M, Mukensnabl P, Michal M (December 2010). "Elastofibromatous changes in tissues from spinal biopsies. A degenerative process afflicting a small but important subset of patients operated for spinal canal compression: report of 18 cases". Int. J. Surg. Pathol. 18 (6): 508–15. doi:10.1177/1066896909339736. PMID 19578045.
  94. 94.0 94.1 Tosios KI, Economou I, Vasilopoulos NN, Koutlas IG (March 2010). "Elastofibromatous changes and hyperelastosis of the oral mucosa". Head Neck Pathol. 4 (1): 31–6. doi:10.1007/s12105-009-0153-y. PMC 2825534. PMID 20237986.
  95. 95.0 95.1 Smith HG, Hannay JA, Thway K, Messiou C, Smith MJ, Strauss DC, Hayes AJ (March 2016). "Elastofibroma dorsi: The clunking tumour that need not cause alarm". Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 98 (3): 208–11. doi:10.1308/rcsann.2016.0064. PMC 5226161. PMID 26890837.
  96. 96.0 96.1 Kourda J, Ayadi-Kaddour A, Merai S, Hantous S, Miled KB, Mezni FE (September 2009). "Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi. A case report and review of the literature". Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 95 (5): 383–7. doi:10.1016/j.otsr.2009.05.002. PMID 19628444.
  97. 97.0 97.1 Hoven-Gondrie ML, IJpma FF, Havenith MG, van Geldere D (2009). "[Elastofibroma dorsi: a characteristic, benign, subscapular swelling]". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd (in Dutch; Flemish). 153: A569. PMID 19900325.
  98. 98.0 98.1 Hayes AJ, Alexander N, Clark MA, Thomas JM (May 2004). "Elastofibroma: a rare soft tissue tumour with a pathognomonic anatomical location and clinical symptom". Eur J Surg Oncol. 30 (4): 450–3. doi:10.1016/j.ejso.2004.01.006. PMID 15063901.
  99. 99.0 99.1 Bhambri A, Del Rosso JQ (June 2009). "Solitary sclerotic fibroma". J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2 (6): 36–8. PMC 2923956. PMID 20729948.
  100. 100.0 100.1 Nakashima K, Yamada N, Adachi K, Yoshida Y, Yamamoto O (October 2008). "Solitary sclerotic fibroma of the skin: morphological characterization of the 'plywood-like pattern'". J. Cutan. Pathol. 35 Suppl 1: 74–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0560.2008.01001.x. PMID 18544068.
  101. 101.0 101.1 Requena L, Gutiérrez J, Sánchez Yus E (August 1992). "Multiple sclerotic fibromas of the skin. A cutaneous marker of Cowden's disease". J. Cutan. Pathol. 19 (4): 346–51. PMID 1430474.
  102. 102.0 102.1 Mori O, Hachisuka H, Sasai Y (1992). "Sclerotic fibromas of the skin--reports of two cases and a review of the literature in Japan". Kurume Med J. 39 (3): 191–3. PMID 1491554.
  103. 103.0 103.1 Lo WL, Wong CK (October 1990). "Solitary sclerotic fibroma". J. Cutan. Pathol. 17 (5): 269–73. PMID 2258475.
  104. 104.0 104.1 Hanft VN, Shea CR, McNutt NS, Pullitzer D, Horenstein MG, Prieto VG (February 2000). "Expression of CD34 in sclerotic ("plywood") fibromas". Am J Dermatopathol. 22 (1): 17–21. PMID 10698210.
  105. 105.0 105.1 High WA, Stewart D, Essary LR, Kageyama NP, Hoang MP, Cockerell CJ (May 2004). "Sclerotic fibroma-like change in various neoplastic and inflammatory skin lesions: is sclerotic fibroma a distinct entity?". J. Cutan. Pathol. 31 (5): 373–8. doi:10.1111/j.0303-6987.2004.00199.x. PMID 15059222.
  106. 106.0 106.1 Shitabata PK, Crouch EC, Fitzgibbon JF, Swanson PE, Adesokan PN, Wick MR (August 1995). "Cutaneous sclerotic fibroma. Immunohistochemical evidence of a fibroblastic neoplasm with ongoing type I collagen synthesis". Am J Dermatopathol. 17 (4): 339–43. PMID 8600796.
  107. 107.0 107.1 Alawi F, Freedman PD (June 2004). "Sporadic sclerotic fibroma of the oral soft tissues". Am J Dermatopathol. 26 (3): 182–7. PMID 15166503.
  108. 108.0 108.1 Upadhyaya JD, Cohen DM, Islam MN, Bhattacharyya I (June 2018). "Hybrid Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Giant Cell Granuloma like Lesion: A Report of Three Additional Cases and Review of the Literature". Head Neck Pathol. 12 (2): 166–174. doi:10.1007/s12105-017-0845-7. PMC 5953869. PMID 28785965.
  109. 109.0 109.1 Sonalika WG, Sahu A, Deogade SC, Gupta P, Naitam D, Chansoria H, Agarwal J, Katoch S (2014). "Giant cell fibroma of tongue: understanding the nature of an unusual histopathological entity". Case Rep Dent. 2014: 864512. doi:10.1155/2014/864512. PMC 3910466. PMID 24511398.
  110. 110.0 110.1 Tosios KI, Gopalakrishnan R, Koutlas IG (December 2008). "So-called hybrid central odontogenic fibroma/central giant cell lesion of the jaws. A report on seven additional cases, including an example in a patient with cherubism, and hypotheses on the pathogenesis". Head Neck Pathol. 2 (4): 333–8. doi:10.1007/s12105-008-0076-z. PMC 2807578. PMID 20614305.
  111. 111.0 111.1 Sabarinath B, Sivaramakrishnan M, Sivapathasundharam B (September 2012). "Giant cell fibroma: A clinicopathological study". J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 16 (3): 359–62. doi:10.4103/0973-029X.102485. PMC 3519210. PMID 23248467.
  112. 112.0 112.1 Mello-Moura AC, Santos AM, Bonini GA, Del Conte Zardetto CG, Moura-Netto C, Wanderley MT (2016). "Giant Cell Fibroma in a Two-Year-Old Child". Case Rep Dent. 2016: 7058356. doi:10.1155/2016/7058356. PMC 5086372. PMID 27822394.
  113. 113.0 113.1 Hosur MB, Puranik RS, Vanaki SS, Puranik SR, Ingaleshwar PS (2018). "Clinicopathological profile of central giant cell granulomas: An institutional experience and study of immunohistochemistry expression of p63 in central giant cell granuloma". J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 22 (2): 173–179. doi:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_260_17. PMC 6097366. PMID 30158768.
  114. 114.0 114.1 Kulkarni S, Chandrashekar C, Kudva R, Radhakrishnan R (2017). "Giant-cell fibroma: Understanding the nature of the melanin-laden cells". J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 21 (3): 429–433. doi:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_209_16. PMC 5763868. PMID 29391720.
  115. 115.0 115.1 Jimson S, Jimson S (December 2013). "Giant cell fibroma: a case report with immunohistochemical markers". J Clin Diagn Res. 7 (12): 3079–80. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/6476.3859. PMC 3919395. PMID 24551733.
  116. 116.0 116.1 Chandna P, Srivastava N, Bansal V, Wadhwan V, Dubey P (2017). "Peripheral and Central Giant Cell Lesions in Children: Institutional Experience at Subharti Dental College and Hospital". Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. 38 (4): 440–446. doi:10.4103/ijmpo.ijmpo_17_16. PMC 5759061. PMID 29333009.
  117. 117.0 117.1 Wright JM, Soluk Tekkesin M (2017). "Odontogenic tumors: where are we in 2017 ?". J Istanb Univ Fac Dent. 51 (3 Suppl 1): S10–S30. doi:10.17096/jiufd.52886. PMC 5750825. PMID 29354306.
  118. 118.0 118.1 Reddy SV, Medikonda SK, Konda A, Natta S (June 2014). "A rare benign odontogenic neoplasm: peripheral odontogenic fibroma". BMJ Case Rep. 2014. doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-201065. PMC 4069815. PMID 24920510.
  119. 119.0 119.1 Baiju CS, Rohatgi S (July 2011). "Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: A case report and review". J Indian Soc Periodontol. 15 (3): 273–5. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.85674. PMC 3200026. PMID 22028517.
  120. 120.0 120.1 Sreeja C, Vezhavendan N, Shabana F, Vijayalakshmi D, Devi M, Arunakiry N (July 2014). "Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding". J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 6 (Suppl 1): S204–7. doi:10.4103/0975-7406.137470. PMC 4157271. PMID 25210375.

Linked-in.jpg