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RefSeq (mRNA)



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Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A also known as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R15A gene.[1][2][3]

The Gadd34/MyD116 gene was originally discovered as a member in a set of gadd and MyD mammalian genes encoding acidic proteins that synergistically suppress cell growth.[4] Later on it has been characterized as a gene playing a role in ER stress-induced cell death, being a target of ATF4 that plays a role in ER-mediated cell death via promoting protein dephosphorylation of eIF2α and reversing translational inhibition.[5]


This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The induction of this gene by ionizing radiation occurs in certain cell lines regardless of p53 status, and its protein response is correlated with apoptosis following ionizing radiation.[3]


PPP1R15A has been shown to interact with:


  1. Hollander MC, Zhan Q, Bae I, Fornace AJ Jr (Jul 1997). "Mammalian GADD34, an apoptosis- and DNA damage-inducible gene". J Biol Chem. 272 (21): 13731–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.21.13731. PMID 9153226.
  2. Korabiowska M, Betke H, Kellner S, Stachura J, Schauer A (Jan 1998). "Differential expression of growth arrest, DNA damage genes and tumour suppressor gene p53 in naevi and malignant melanomas". Anticancer Res. 17 (5A): 3697–700. PMID 9413226.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Entrez Gene: PPP1R15A protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 15A".
  4. Zhan Q, Lord KA, Alamo I, Hollander MC, Carrier F, Ron D, Kohn KW, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA, Fornace AJ (April 1994). "The gadd and MyD genes define a novel set of mammalian genes encoding acidic proteins that synergistically suppress cell growth". Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (4): 2361–71. doi:10.1128/mcb.14.4.2361. PMC 358603. PMID 8139541.
  5. Sano R, Reed JC (July 2013). "ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1833 (12): 3460–70. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.06.028. PMC 3834229. PMID 23850759.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Hung WJ, Roberson RS, Taft J, Wu DY (2003). "Human BAG-1 proteins bind to the cellular stress response protein GADD34 and interfere with GADD34 functions". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (10): 3477–86. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.10.3477-3486.2003. PMC 164759. PMID 12724406.
  7. Grishin AV, Azhipa O, Semenov I, Corey SJ (2001). "Interaction between growth arrest-DNA damage protein 34 and Src kinase Lyn negatively regulates genotoxic apoptosis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (18): 10172–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.191130798. PMC 56934. PMID 11517336.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Adler HT, Chinery R, Wu DY, Kussick SJ, Payne JM, Fornace AJ, Tkachuk DC (1999). "Leukemic HRX fusion proteins inhibit GADD34-induced apoptosis and associate with the GADD34 and hSNF5/INI1 proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (10): 7050–60. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.10.7050. PMC 84700. PMID 10490642.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Wu DY, Tkachuck DC, Roberson RS, Schubach WH (2002). "The human SNF5/INI1 protein facilitates the function of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein (GADD34) and modulates GADD34-bound protein phosphatase-1 activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (31): 27706–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200955200. PMID 12016208.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Connor JH, Weiser DC, Li S, Hallenbeck JM, Shenolikar S (2001). "Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 assembles a novel signaling complex containing protein phosphatase 1 and inhibitor 1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (20): 6841–50. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6841-6850.2001. PMC 99861. PMID 11564868.
  11. Hasegawa T, Isobe K (1999). "Evidence for the interaction between Translin and GADD34 in mammalian cells". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1428 (2–3): 161–8. doi:10.1016/s0304-4165(99)00060-4. PMID 10434033.

Further reading