Cyanosis pathophysiology

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Cyanosis Microchapters



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Differentiating Cyanosis from other Diseases

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chandrakala Yannam, MD [2]


Cyanosis is a bluish or purplish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes. Two mechanisms are involved in the development of cyanosis, systemic arterial oxygen desaturation and increased oxygen absorption by tissues. Cyanosis is evident when arterial oxygen desaturation falls below 85% or the concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) exceeds 5 gm/dl. Several factors can affect the appearance of cyanosis which include: skin pigmentation, Hemoglobin (Hb) levels, oxygen affinity to the hemoglobin (Hb).


Genetics, Associated Conditions, Gross Pathology, Microscopic Pathology

Hand with cyanosis - By James Heilman, MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,[17]

For detailed information on the genetics, associated conditions, gross and microscopic pathological features associated with conditions causing cyanosis, click the links below.


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  6. Adeyinka A, Kondamudi NP. PMID 29489181. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. Lundsgaard C (September 1919). "STUDIES ON CYANOSIS : II. SECONDARY CAUSES OF CYANOSIS". J. Exp. Med. 30 (3): 271–93. PMC 2126678. PMID 19868358.
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  10. Ananthakrishna R, Moorthy N, Rao DP, Nanjappa MC (2015). "An adult with central cyanosis and differential pulmonary vascularity". Ann Pediatr Cardiol. 8 (3): 253–4. doi:10.4103/0974-2069.150701. PMC 4608209. PMID 26556978.
  11. Stadie WC (September 1919). "THE OXYGEN OF THE ARTERIAL AND VENOUS BLOOD IN PNEUMONIA AND ITS RELATION TO CYANOSIS". J. Exp. Med. 30 (3): 215–40. PMC 2126679. PMID 19868355.
  12. Bailliard F, Anderson RH (January 2009). "Tetralogy of Fallot". Orphanet J Rare Dis. 4: 2. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-4-2. PMC 2651859. PMID 19144126.
  13. Martins P, Castela E (October 2008). "Transposition of the great arteries". Orphanet J Rare Dis. 3: 27. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-3-27. PMC 2577629. PMID 18851735.
  14. Jain A, Patel A, Hoppe IC (2016). "Benzocaine-Induced Cyanosis". Eplasty. 16: ic18. PMC 4879862. PMID 27257469.
  15. Baranoski G, Van Leeuwen SR, Chen TF (July 2017). "On the detection of peripheral cyanosis in individuals with distinct levels of cutaneous pigmentation". Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2017: 4260–4264. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2017.8037797. PMID 29060838. Vancouver style error: initials (help)
  16. Das S, Maiti A (November 2013). "Acrocyanosis: an overview". Indian J Dermatol. 58 (6): 417–20. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.119946. PMC 3827510. PMID 24249890.