COVID-19 secondary prevention

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Tayyaba Ali, M.D.[2]

Overview

The secondary prevention measures of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) encompasses measures to make sure that an infected individual does not transfer the disease to others.

Secondary Prevention

The secondary prevention measures of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) encompasses measures to make sure that an infected individual does not transfer the disease to others.

  • Infection Control:
  • WHO recommends home care for patients with suspected COVID-19 who present with mild symptoms.[1]
  • It is highly recommended for people with suspected or affirmed COVID-19 (including those anticipating test results) should remain at home and attempt to isolate themselves from other members and animals in the family unit.[2][3]
  • World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended wearing a medical mask if family members are in the same room with the COVID-19 patient to prevent the spread of the virus.[4] Whereas, according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a cloth face Cover can be acceptable for caregivers at home and has considered the use of a medical mask for healthcare workers.[5]
  • It is highly recommended for COVID-19 patients to use a separate bedroom and bathroom to prevent the spread of infection to family members. To avoid sharing rooms and if sharing space in a home is unavoidable, keeping a six feet (two meters) distance is extremely emphasized. Care providers should perform hand hygiene after any form of contact with patients or their immediate environment. In a process of providing care to the patient, the caregiver should wear gloves while touching the patient's blood, stool, or body fluids, such as saliva, sputum, nasal mucus, vomit, and urine. Certain things should not be shared with COVID-19 patients such as dishes, drinking glasses, cups, eating utensils, towels, bedding, and thermometers. After the COVID-19 patients use these things, they should be properly disinfected.[6][7][8][9]
  • COVID-19 patients who require nebulizer treatment and patients with sleep apnea who use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine should avoid using them in shared spaces where there is a risk of aerosol transmission to family members.[10][11]
  • Symptomatic Treatment:
  • Symptomatic treatment of mild COVID-19 includes antipyretics and analgesics for fever, myalgias, and headaches.
  • Lying on a prone position has shown a symptomatic improvement for patients with cough or dyspnea.[12]
  • Anti-Viral Therapy for COVID-19:

To browse a topic on medical therapy of COVID-19, Click here.

References

  1. "Home care for patients with COVID-19 presenting with mild symptoms and management of their contacts".
  2. "COVID-19 and Animals | CDC". Retrieved 7/11/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. [+http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6923e3 "First Reported Cases of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Companion Animals — New York, March–April 2020 | MMWR"] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 7/11/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. [+https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-in-healthcare-settings-in-the-context-of-the-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-outbreak "Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home care and in healthcare settings in the context of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak"] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 7/11/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. "www.cdc.gov". Retrieved 7/11/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. "Home care for patients with COVID-19 presenting with mild symptoms and management of their contacts". Retrieved 7/11/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  7. "COVID19 - Caring for someone at home | CDC". Retrieved 7/12/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  8. "Cleaning and Disinfection for Households | CDC". Retrieved 7/12/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  9. "Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home care and in healthcare settings in the context of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak". Retrieved 7/12/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  10. [+https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html "Clinical Questions about COVID-19: Questions and Answers | CDC"] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 7/12/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  11. "COVID-19: FAQs for Sleep Medicine Clinicians and Sleep Facilities | AASM". Retrieved 7/12/2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  12. Caputo ND, Strayer RJ, Levitan R (2020). "Early Self-Proning in Awake, Non-intubated Patients in the Emergency Department: A Single ED's Experience During the COVID-19 Pandemic". Acad Emerg Med. 27 (5): 375–378. doi:10.1111/acem.13994. PMC 7264594 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32320506 Check |pmid= value (help).