Appendix cancer risk factors

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Appendix cancer Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Epidemiology and Demographics

Differentiating Appendix cancer from other Diseases

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings




CT scan

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Appendix cancer risk factors On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Appendix cancer risk factors

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Appendix cancer risk factors

CDC on Appendix cancer risk factors

Appendix cancer risk factors in the news

Blogs on Appendix cancer risk factors

Directions to Hospitals Treating Appendix cancer

Risk calculators and risk factors for Appendix cancer risk factors

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Soroush Seifirad, M.D.[2]


Common risk factors in the development of appendix cancer are a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Common risk factors in the development of appendix cancer include age, sex, smoking, familial cancer disorders such as MEN1 Syndrome and HNPCC, as well as long standing chronic inflammatory disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

  • Common risk factors in the development of appendix cancers include:
    • Smoking: Smoking is a pretty well known risk factor for developing colorectal malignancies. An association was demonstrated between cigarette smoking and MSI-high, CIMP-positive, and BRAF mutation positive colorectal cancer subtypes.[1]
    • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome: An increased prevalance of carcinoid tumors has been reported in the patients with Wermer syndrome.[2]
    • Age: Adenocarcinoma peak age is around 60s while carcinoid tumors are prevalent in 40s.[3][4]

Less Common Risk Factors

  • Less common risk factors in the development of appendix cancers include:
    • Chronic inflammatory disease specially ulcerative colitis.[5]
    • Sex[4]
      • There is a male dominant pattern of prevalence in adenocarcinoma of appendix.
      • Although it is still controversial, most of the published studies demonstrated that females are more commonly affected by appendiceal carcinoids than men. [6]


  1. David Limsui, Robert A. Vierkant, Lori S. Tillmans, Alice H. Wang, Daniel J. Weisenberger, Peter W. Laird, Charles F. Lynch, Kristin E. Anderson, Amy J. French, Robert W. Haile, Lisa J. Harnack, John D. Potter, Susan L. Slager, Thomas C. Smyrk, Stephen N. Thibodeau, James R. Cerhan & Paul J. Limburg (2010). "Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk by molecularly defined subtypes". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 102 (14): 1012–1022. doi:10.1093/jnci/djq201. PMID 20587792. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Q. Y. Duh, C. P. Hybarger, R. Geist, G. Gamsu, P. C. Goodman, G. A. Gooding & O. H. Clark (1987). "Carcinoids associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes". American journal of surgery. 154 (1): 142–148. PMID 2886072. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Modlin IM, Sandor A (1997). "An analysis of 8305 cases of carcinoid tumors". Cancer. 79 (4): 813–29. PMID 9024720.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Deans GT, Spence RA (1995). "Neoplastic lesions of the appendix". Br J Surg. 82 (3): 299–306. PMID 7795991.
  5. Odze RD, Medline P, Cohen Z (1994). "Adenocarcinoma arising in an appendix involved with chronic ulcerative colitis". Am J Gastroenterol. 89 (10): 1905–7. PMID 7942699.
  6. Syracuse DC, Perzin KH, Price JB, Wiedel PD, Mesa-Tejada R (1979). "Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Mesoappendiceal extension and nodal metastases". Ann Surg. 190 (1): 58–63. PMC 1344458. PMID 464679.

Template:WH Template:WS