Appendix cancer risk factors
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Common risk factors in the development of appendix cancer are a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Common risk factors in the development of appendix cancer include age, sex, smoking, familial cancer disorders such as MEN1 Syndrome and HNPCC, as well as long standing chronic inflammatory disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
Common Risk Factors
- Common risk factors in the development of appendix cancers include:
- Smoking: Smoking is a pretty well known risk factor for developing colorectal malignancies. An association was demonstrated between cigarette smoking and MSI-high, CIMP-positive, and BRAF mutation positive colorectal cancer subtypes.
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome: An increased prevalance of carcinoid tumors has been reported in the patients with Wermer syndrome.
- Age: Adenocarcinoma peak age is around 60s while carcinoid tumors are prevalent in 40s.
Less Common Risk Factors
- Less common risk factors in the development of appendix cancers include:
- Chronic inflammatory disease specially ulcerative colitis.
- There is a male dominant pattern of prevalence in adenocarcinoma of appendix.
- Although it is still controversial, most of the published studies demonstrated that females are more commonly affected by appendiceal carcinoids than men. 
- David Limsui, Robert A. Vierkant, Lori S. Tillmans, Alice H. Wang, Daniel J. Weisenberger, Peter W. Laird, Charles F. Lynch, Kristin E. Anderson, Amy J. French, Robert W. Haile, Lisa J. Harnack, John D. Potter, Susan L. Slager, Thomas C. Smyrk, Stephen N. Thibodeau, James R. Cerhan & Paul J. Limburg (2010). "Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk by molecularly defined subtypes". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 102 (14): 1012–1022. doi:10.1093/jnci/djq201. PMID 20587792. Unknown parameter
- Q. Y. Duh, C. P. Hybarger, R. Geist, G. Gamsu, P. C. Goodman, G. A. Gooding & O. H. Clark (1987). "Carcinoids associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes". American journal of surgery. 154 (1): 142–148. PMID 2886072. Unknown parameter
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- Deans GT, Spence RA (1995). "Neoplastic lesions of the appendix". Br J Surg. 82 (3): 299–306. PMID 7795991.
- Odze RD, Medline P, Cohen Z (1994). "Adenocarcinoma arising in an appendix involved with chronic ulcerative colitis". Am J Gastroenterol. 89 (10): 1905–7. PMID 7942699.
- Syracuse DC, Perzin KH, Price JB, Wiedel PD, Mesa-Tejada R (1979). "Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Mesoappendiceal extension and nodal metastases". Ann Surg. 190 (1): 58–63. PMC 1344458. PMID 464679.