Acoustic neuroma risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Simrat Sarai, M.D. [2] Mohsen Basiri M.D.


Common risk factors in the development of acoustic neuroma are neurofibromatosis type 2, radiation, exposure to loud noise, history of parathyroid adenoma, and the use of cellular phones.[1]

Risk Factors

The risk factors of acoustic neuroma include:

  • Neurofibromatosis type 2[2][3]
    The known risk factor for acoustic neuroma is having a parent with the rare genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2. Neurofibromatosis type 2 is characterized by development of benign tumors on the VIII cranial nerve(balance nerves) on both sides of your head but it can affect other nerves too. NF2 is an autosomal:dominant disorder. The mutation can be passed on by just one parent(dominant gene). Each child of an affected parent has a 50% chance of inheriting it. NF2 occurs :with a frequency of 1 in 30,000 to 1 in 50,000 births. Neurofibromatosis type II occurs in individuals who have defective tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome :22q12.2. The defective protein produced by the gene is called merlin or schwannomin.[4][5]
  • Childhood exposure to radiation of the head and neck may be associated with acoustic neuroma.[6][7]
  • There is a growing body of evidence that sporadic defects in tumor suppressor genes may give rise to acoustic neuromas in some individuals.
  • Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation is the only definite environmental risk factor associated with an increased risk of developing an acoustic neuroma.[8][9]
  • Exposure to loud noise on a consistent basis may give rise to acoustic neuromas.[10]
  • A concomitant history of having had a parathyroid adenoma may have an increased risk of developing vestibular schwannoma.[11]
  • The use of cellular phones may be associated with increased incidence of acoustic neuromas. Whether or not the radiofrequency radiation has anything to do with acoustic neuroma formation, remains to be seen.To date, no environmental factor (such as cell phones or diet) has been scientifically proven to cause these tumors. The Acoustic Neuroma Association (ANA) does recommend that frequent cellular phone users use a hands free device to enable separation of the device from the head.[12][13][14][15][16]


  1. Vestibular Schwannoma. Wikipedia(2015) Accessed on October 2 2015
  2. Michael E. Sughrue, Andrea H. Yeung, Martin J. Rutkowski, Steven W. Cheung & Andrew T. Parsa (2011). "Molecular biology of familial and sporadic vestibular schwannomas: implications for novel therapeutics". Journal of neurosurgery. 114 (2): 359–366. doi:10.3171/2009.10.JNS091135. PMID 19943731. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. M. Ruggieri, A. D. Pratico, A. Serra, L. Maiolino, S. Cocuzza, P. Di Mauro, L. Licciardello, P. Milone, G. Privitera, G. Belfiore, M. Di Pietro, F. Di Raimondo, A. Romano, A. Chiarenza, M. Muglia, A. Polizzi & D. G. Evans (2016). "Childhood neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and related disorders: from bench to bedside and biologically targeted therapies". Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale. 36 (5): 345–367. doi:10.14639/0392-100X-1093. PMID 27958595. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. D. Bradley Welling, MD (1998). "Clinical Manifestations of Mutations in the Neurofibrornatosis Type 2 Gene in Vestibular Schwannornas (Acoustic Neurornas)". Laryngoscope.
  5. Guy A.rouleau. Philippe Merel. Mohini Lutchman. Marc Sanson. Jessica Zucman. Cluade Marineau. (1993). "Alteration in a new gene encoding a putative membrane-organizing protein causes neuroma-fibromatosis type 2". Nature.
  6. Arthur B. Schneider, Elaine Ron, Jay Lubin, Marilyn Stovall, Eileen Shore-Freedman, Jocelyn Tolentino & Barbara J. Collins (2008). "Acoustic neuromas following childhood radiation treatment for benign conditions of the head and neck". Neuro-oncology. 10 (1): 73–78. doi:10.1215/15228517-2007-047. PMID 18079359. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. E. Shore-Freedman, C. Abrahams, W. Recant & A. B. Schneider (1983). "Neurilemomas and salivary gland tumors of the head and neck following childhood irradiation". Cancer. 51 (12): 2159–2163. PMID 6850504. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. Oyebode Taiwo, Deron Galusha, Baylah Tessier-Sherman, Sharon Kirsche, Linda Cantley, Martin D. Slade, Mark R. Cullen & A. Michael Donoghue (2014). "Acoustic neuroma: potential risk factors and audiometric surveillance in the aluminium industry". Occupational and environmental medicine. 71 (9): 624–628. doi:10.1136/oemed-2014-102094. PMID 25015928. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. Mantao Chen, Zuoxu Fan, Xiujue Zheng, Fei Cao & Liang Wang (2016). "Risk Factors of Acoustic Neuroma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Yonsei medical journal. 57 (3): 776–783. doi:10.3349/ymj.2016.57.3.776. PMID 26996581. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. Colin G. Edwards, Judith A. Schwartzbaum, Stefan Lonn, Anders Ahlbom & Maria Feychting (2006). "Exposure to loud noise and risk of acoustic neuroma". American journal of epidemiology. 163 (4): 327–333. doi:10.1093/aje/kwj044. PMID 16357108. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  11. L. Magnus Backlund, Dan Grander, Lena Brandt, Per Hall & Anders Ekbom (2005). "Parathyroid adenoma and primary CNS tumors". International journal of cancer. 113 (6): 866–869. doi:10.1002/ijc.20743. PMID 15515018. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  12. Seung-Kwon Myung, Woong Ju, Diana D. McDonnell, Yeon Ji Lee, Gene Kazinets, Chih-Tao Cheng & Joel M. Moskowitz (2009). "Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis". Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 27 (33): 5565–5572. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.21.6366. PMID 19826127. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  13. M. P. Little, P. Rajaraman, R. E. Curtis, S. S. Devesa, P. D. Inskip, D. P. Check & M. S. Linet (2012). "Mobile phone use and glioma risk: comparison of epidemiological study results with incidence trends in the United States". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 344: e1147. doi:10.1136/bmj.e1147. PMID 22403263. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  14. Isabelle Deltour, Anssi Auvinen, Maria Feychting, Christoffer Johansen, Lars Klaeboe, Risto Sankila & Joachim Schuz (2012). "Mobile phone use and incidence of glioma in the Nordic countries 1979-2008: consistency check". Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.). 23 (2): 301–307. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182448295. PMID 22249239. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  15. Baan, Robert; Grosse, Yann; Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Islami, Farhad; Galichet, Laurent; Straif, Kurt (2011). "Carcinogenicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields". The Lancet Oncology. 12 (7): 624–626. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70147-4. ISSN 1470-2045.
  16. "Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: Results of the INTERPHONE international case–control study". Cancer Epidemiology. 35 (5): 453–464. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2011.05.012. ISSN 1877-7821.