Vitamin K antagonist

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File:Menaquinone.svg
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone). In menaquinone the side chain is composed of a varying number of isoprenoid residues.

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are a class of anticoagulants which, as their name indicates, act by inhibiting the action of vitamin K.

They can be teratogens.[1]

Coumarins

Coumarins are the most commonly used VKA, and sometimes the terms are used synonymously.

In medicine, the most commonly used VKA is warfarin.[2] The primary mechanism of warfarin is the inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase.

VKAs are also used as rodenticides.[3]

Other VKAs

Not all VKAs are coumarins. For example, fluindione is a VKA,[4] but not a coumarin.

Another example is phenindione.[5]

Many of the non-coumarin VKAs are 1,3-indandione derivatives.

Tioclomarol is another VKA,[6] but it is neither a coumarin nor a diketone.

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References

  1. Schaefer C, Hannemann D, Meister R; et al. (2006). "Vitamin K antagonists and pregnancy outcome. A multi-centre prospective study". Thromb. Haemost. 95 (6): 949–57. doi:10.1160/TH06-02-0108. PMID 16732373. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, Jacobson A, Crowther M, Palareti G (2008). "Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition)". Chest. 133 (6 Suppl): 160S–198S. doi:10.1378/chest.08-0670. PMID 18574265. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Griminger P (1987). "Vitamin K antagonists: the first 50 years". J. Nutr. 117 (7): 1325–9. PMID 3302140. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Mentré F, Pousset F, Comets E; et al. (1998). "Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of fluindione in patients". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 63 (1): 64–78. doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(98)90122-9. PMID 9465843. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. "Foreword: contemporary issues in the management and treatment of atrial fibrillation -- Agnelli 7 (2005): C3 -- European Heart Journal Supplements". Retrieved 2008-12-22.
  6. "ATC/DDD Index". Retrieved 2008-12-23.

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