Galactorrhea

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Galactorrhea
ICD-10 N64.3, O92.6
ICD-9 611.6, 676.6
DiseasesDB 6314
MeSH D005687

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Synonyms and Keywords: Galactorrhoea-Hyperprolactinaemia; hyperlactation; hyperprolactinaemia; lactation, increased; galactorrhea-hyperprolactinemia

Overview

Galactorrhea or galactorrhoea is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing. Contemporary Maternal-Newborn Nursing Care defines galactorrhea as "nipple discharge." [1]

Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Chemical/Poisoning Licorice
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Shingles
Drug Side Effect Alimemazine, Amisulpride, Amoxapine, Antihypertensive medication, Antipsychotics, Birth control , Chlorpromazine, Cimetidine, Deserpidine, Domperidone, Dutetrabenazine, Ethinylestradiol, Fluoxetine, Flupentixol, Haloperidol, Levomepromazine, Loxapine , Methyldopa, Methyldopate, Metoclopramide, Olanzapine, Oral contraceptives, Paliperidone, Paroxetine , Perazine, Phenothiazines, Pimozide, Pipothiazine, Reserpine, Risperidone, Tetrabenazine, Trifluperidol, Verapamil, Zotepine
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Anterior pituitary hyperhormonotrophic syndrome , Cushing disease, Excessive prolactin , Forbes-albright syndrome , Hyperoestrogenic states, Hypothyroidism, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Pineal tumour, Pituitary adenomas, Pituitary cancer 
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Shingles
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic Craniopharyngiomas, Intracranial space-occupying lesion, Meningoencephalitis
Nutritional/Metabolic Insulin receptor defect with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus
Obstetric/Gynecologic Ahumada-del castillo syndrome , Breast feeding, Breast stimulation, Chest wall stimulation, Chiari-frommel syndrome , Excessive prolactin , Metastatic breast carcinoma, Nipple stimulation, Pregnancy, Prolactin overproduction, Prolactinomas
Oncologic Craniopharyngiomas, Forbes-albright syndrome , Metastatic breast carcinoma, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Neoplasm, Pineal tumour, Pituitary adenomas, Pituitary cancer , Prolactinomas
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity Opiates, Opioids
Psychiatric Stress
Pulmonary Sarcoidosis
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Sarcoidosis
Sexual Nipple stimulation, Sexual intercourse
Trauma Head trauma, Physical exertion
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Differentiating Galactorrhea from other Diseases

In alphabetical order. [2] [3]

References

  1. Ladewig, P., London, M., Davidson, M. (2006). Contemporary Maternal-Newborn Nursing Care (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0131703927.
  2. Sailer, Christian, Wasner, Susanne. Differential Diagnosis Pocket. Hermosa Beach, CA: Borm Bruckmeir Publishing LLC, 2002:77 ISBN 1591032016
  3. Kahan, Scott, Smith, Ellen G. In A Page: Signs and Symptoms. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2004:68 ISBN 140510368X



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