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Editor-In-Chief: Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Surgery, Residency Program Director, Section of Urologic Oncology, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic. You can email Dr. Campbell by clicking here. Office phone: 216-444-5595. Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maliha Shakil, M.D. [1]


More than 85% of cases of cystitis are caused by escherichia coli ("E. coli"), a bacterium found in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Some viruses, fungi and parasites can also rarely cause cystitis. Other causes of cystitis include certain medications, diabetes, Crohn's disease, iatrogenic causes, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, urinary obstruction, bladder incontinence, Bladder Catheterisation, Trauma, Contraceptives like spermicides, Immobility and Genetic predisposition.[1][2][3]


Common Causes

Infections are the most common cause of cystitis. More than 80% of cases of cystitis are caused by escherichia coli ("E. coli"), a bacterium found in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Pathogens causing cystitis include: [1]

  • Escherichia Coli
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Klebsiella
  • Enterobacter
  • Proteus species
  • Enterococci

Hemorrhagic Causes

Hemorrhagic Cystitis can be caused by certain medications, procedures, radiation therapy and infections. [4][5][6]

Other Disease Causes

The following syndromes can lead to Cystitis:[7][8][9][1]

Causes by Organ System

The causes of Cystitis with rest to organ system can be classified as:[10][11][12][13][4][5][6][14][15][3][16][17][18][19][8]

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical / poisoning Artificial sweeteners, benzidine, bubble baths, chemical cystitis, diaphragm, feminine hygeine sprays, perfumed soap, spermicidal jellies, talcum powder
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Allopurinol, BCG vaccine, Cetirizine, Cyc,lophosphamide, Cytarabine, Danazol, Doxorubicin, drug induced cystitis, hexaminolevulinate Ifosfamide, Leflunomide, Methotrexate, NSAIDs, Oxaprozin, Pramipexole, Sertraline, Tiagabine, Tiaprofenic acid, Ticarcillin, Topiramate, Tranilast
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Diabetes, diabetic neuropathy
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Crohn's disease, diarrhea, diverticulitis, vescicoenteric fistula
Genetic Urofacial syndrome, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Cystoscopy, radiotherapy, urinary catheter, episiotomy scar infection
Infectious Disease Candida, chlamydia, E. coli, enterobacter, episiotomy scar infection, gonorrhea, klebsiella, prostatitis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, schistosomiasis, serratia, sexually transmitted diseases, staphyloccus saprophyticus, trichomoniasis, tuberculosis, urinary tract infection
Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic Diabetic neuropathy
Nutritional / Metabolic Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, poor nutrition, tomatoes, xanthinuria, artificial sweeteners
Obstetric/Gynecologic Endometriosis, gynecological cancers, menopause, PID, pregnancy, episiotomy scar infection
Oncologic Gynecological cancers, Urachal cancer
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Behcet's disease, lupus, Crohn's disease, autoimmune interstitial cystitis
Sexual Frequent sex, men having sex with men, vigorous sex, honeymoon cystitis
Trauma Spinal cord injury
Urologic Autoimmune interstitial cystitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, bladder incontinence, congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract, enlarged prostate, honeymoon cystitis, Hunner's ulcer, interstitial cystitis, narrowing of the urethral opening, posterior urethral valve, urachal cancer, urachal cyst, urethral syndrome, urethritis, urinary obstruction, urinary stones, vescicoenteric fistula, urinary tract infection
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Dehydration, female gender, foreign body cystitis, immobility, Not wiping from front to back (women), old age, poor hygeine, tampons, tight fitting underwear

Causes in Alphabetical Order



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ronald A (2002). "The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens.". Am J Med. 113 Suppl 1A: 14S–19S. PMID 12113867. 
  2. Aydos MM, Memis A, Yakupoglu YK, Ozdal OL, Oztekin V (2001). "The use and efficacy of the American Urological Association Symptom Index in assessing the outcome of urethroplasty for post-traumatic complete posterior urethral strictures.". BJU Int. 88 (4): 382–4. PMID 11564026. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bilichenko SV, Maĭzel's IG, Golovina EI, Arkhipov VV (2001). "[Bladder foreign body in a 4-year-old girl].". Urologiia (3): 42–3. PMID 11505545. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Cox PJ (1979). "Cyclophosphamide cystitis and bladder cancer. A hypothesis.". Eur J Cancer. 15 (8): 1071–2. PMID 510344. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Russo P (2000). "Urologic emergencies in the cancer patient.". Semin Oncol. 27 (3): 284–98. PMID 10864217. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Wakamiya T, Kuramoto T, Inagaki T (2016). "[Two Cases of Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder Associated with Radiation Cystitis, Repaired with Omentum Covering].". Hinyokika Kiyo. 62 (10): 545–548. PMID 27919130. doi:10.14989/ActaUrolJap_62_10_545. 
  7. Ples R, Méchaï F, Champiat B, Droupy S, Huerre M, Guettier C; et al. (2011). "[Pseudotumoral toxoplasmic cystitis revealing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].". Ann Pathol. 31 (1): 46–9. PMID 21349389. doi:10.1016/j.annpat.2010.11.001. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Teles F, Santos LG, Tenório CE, Marinho MR, Moraes SR, Câmara DB; et al. (2016). "Lupus cystitis presenting with hidronephrosis and gastrointestinal involvement.". J Bras Nefrol. 38 (4): 478–482. PMID 28001179. doi:10.5935/0101-2800.20160077. 
  9. Platt R, Polk BF, Murdock B, Rosner B (1986). "Risk factors for nosocomial urinary tract infection.". Am J Epidemiol. 124 (6): 977–85. PMID 3776980. 
  10. Hooton TM, Stamm WE (1997). "Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.". Infect Dis Clin North Am. 11 (3): 551–81. PMID 9378923. 
  11. Friedlander JI, Shorter B, Moldwin RM (2012). "Diet and its role in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and comorbid conditions.". BJU Int. 109 (11): 1584–91. PMID 22233286. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10860.x. 
  12. Leutscher PD, Pedersen M, Raharisolo C, Jensen JS, Hoffmann S, Lisse I; et al. (2005). "Increased prevalence of leukocytes and elevated cytokine levels in semen from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals.". J Infect Dis. 191 (10): 1639–47. PMID 15838790. doi:10.1086/429334. 
  13. Okazaki S, Hori J, Kita M, Yamaguchi S, Kawakami N, Kakizaki H (2014). "[A case of eosinophilic cystitis mimicking an invasive bladder cancer].". Hinyokika Kiyo. 60 (12): 635–9. PMID 25602481. 
  14. Cunha BA, Lee P, Kaouris N, Raza M (2015). "The safety of nitrofurantoin for the treatment of nosocomial catheter-associated bacteriuria (CAB) and cystitis.". J Chemother. 27 (2): 122–3. PMID 25004793. doi:10.1179/1973947814Y.0000000202. 
  15. Teal SB, Craven WM (2006). "Inadvertent vesicular placement of a vaginal contraceptive ring presenting as persistent cystitis.". Obstet Gynecol. 107 (2 Pt 2): 470–2. PMID 16449153. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000164072.91339.9e. 
  16. Grimsby GM, Tyson MD, Salevitz B, Smith ML, Castle EP (2012). "Bladder Outlet Obstruction Secondary to a Brunn's Cyst.". Curr Urol. 6 (1): 50–2. PMC 3783323Freely accessible. PMID 24917712. doi:10.1159/000338871. 
  17. Tzou KY, Chiang YT (2016). "Emphysematous Cystitis.". N Engl J Med. 375 (18): 1779. PMID 27806219. doi:10.1056/NEJMicm1509543. 
  18. Echols RM, Tosiello RL, Haverstock DC, Tice AD (1999). "Demographic, clinical, and treatment parameters influencing the outcome of acute cystitis.". Clin Infect Dis. 29 (1): 113–9. PMID 10433573. doi:10.1086/520138. 
  19. de Cueto M, Aliaga L, Alós JI, Canut A, Los-Arcos I, Martínez JA; et al. (2016). "Executive summary of the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection: Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (SEIMC).". Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. PMID 28017477. doi:10.1016/j.eimc.2016.11.005. 


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