African trypanosomiasis natural history, complications and prognosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Pilar Almonacid, Aditya Ganti M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

If left untreated, the patient will develop symptoms of progressive mental deterioration, which are irreversible and will eventually lead to death. Common complications that can develop as a result of African trypanosomiasis include anemia, aspiration pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, seizures, coma, perinatal death, or abortion (congenital infection). The prognosis of African trypanosomiasis is good with treatment. Without treatment, the mortality rate of African sleeping sickness is close to 100%.[1][2]

Natural History

If African trypanosomiasis is left untreated, the patient will develop symptoms of progressive mental deterioration, which is irreversible and will eventually lead to death.

Complications

Common complications that can develop as a result of African trypanosomiasis include:[1][2]

Prognosis

The prognosis of African trypanosomiasis is good with treatment. Symptoms in both early and late stage trypanosomiasis often resolve along with negative parasitemia on repeat blood smears after treatment. The presence of mental status changes and focal neurological deficits is associated with a particularly poor prognosis among patients with African trypanosomiasis. Without treatment, the mortality rate of African sleeping sickness is close to 100%.[1][2]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Blum J, Schmid C, Burri C (2006). "Clinical aspects of 2541 patients with second stage human African trypanosomiasis". Acta Trop. 97 (1): 55–64. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2005.08.001. PMID 16157286.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Levine IM, Jossmann PB, DeAngelis V (1977). "Liorseal, a new muscle relaxant in the treatment of spasticity--a double-blind quantitative evaluation". Dis Nerv Syst. 38 (12): 1011–5. PMID 338269.

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