African trypanosomiasis historical perspective
African trypanosomiasis Microchapters
African trypanosomiasis historical perspective On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of African trypanosomiasis historical perspective
African trypanosomiasis has been present in Africa for thousands of years. In 1903, David Bruce identified the vector of causative agent. In 1910, the differentiation between the subspecies of the protozoa was established.
- In 1841, Valentin, a professor of physiology, discovered a trypanosome-like flagellate for the first time in the blood of a trout.
- In 1843, Gruby gave a detailed description of trypanosomes based on the work done independently by Gluge and Mayer in the blood of frogs.
- In 1891, Nepveu identified trypanosomes for the first time in human blood.
- In 1898, Brault suggested trypanosomes as the cause of sleeping sickness.
- In 1901, Forde and Dutton described Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in human blood for the first time.
- In 1902, the First and Second Sleeping Sickness Commissions led by Low and Bruce were conducted in Uganda.
- In 1902, Castellani identified trypanosomes in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from sleeping sickness for the first time.
- In 1903, David Bruce recognized the tsetse fly as the arthropod vector.
- In 1905, Bruce suggested that tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes mechanically.
- In 1909, Kleine demonstrated the cyclical transmission of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.
- In 1910, Stevens and Fantham identified Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense as the cause of acute sleeping sickness.
- In 1914, Ritz described the antigenic variation of trypanosomes.
- In 1969, Vickerman described the coat of trypanosomes as the source of antigenic variation.
Landmark Events in Treatment Strategies
- In 1902, Laveran and Mesnil discovered that sodium arsenite can be used to kill trypanosomes.
- In 1945, DDT was used for the first time in controlling tsetse flies.
- In 1949, melarsoprol was used for the first time as an anti-trypanosome drug.
- In 1992, eflornithine was used for the treatment of human sleeping sickness.