Acute tubular necrosis medical therapy

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chandrakala Yannam, MD [2]

Overview

According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines, management approach of acute tubular necrosis include examination of all patients thoroughly to identify the cause, precipitating factors, and comorbid conditions leading to a rapid reduction in GFR, which may be reversible and regular monitor patients for serum creatinine, BUN, and urine output to assess the severity of renal damage.

Medical Therapy

  • Acute tubular necrosis, which is usually reversible. It may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and management are essential for a better outcome.[1]
  • According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines, management approach of acute tubular necrosis include,
    • Examine all patients thoroughly to identify the cause, precipitating factors, and comorbid conditions leading to a rapid reduction in GFR, which may be reversible.
    • Regularly monitor patients for serum creatinine, BUN, and urine output to assess the severity of renal damage.
    • Assess volume status and manage it accordingly.
    • Avoiding or minimizing the dosage of nephrotoxic medications, and radiocontrast media.
    • According to KDIGO guidelines, following medications have no role in the management and outcome of acute tubular necrosis:[2][3]
    • Appropriate management of electrolyte and acid-base imbalance:
    • Renal replacement therapy:
      • Indications for renal replacement therapy include:
        • Severe hyperkalemia
        • Hypervolemia
        • Uremia
        • Severe metabolic alkalosis

References

  1. Finn WF (July 1990). "Diagnosis and management of acute tubular necrosis". Med. Clin. North Am. 74 (4): 873–91. PMID 2195259.
  2. Kellum JA, M Decker J (August 2001). "Use of dopamine in acute renal failure: a meta-analysis". Crit. Care Med. 29 (8): 1526–31. PMID 11505120.
  3. Bagshaw SM, Delaney A, Haase M, Ghali WA, Bellomo R (March 2007). "Loop diuretics in the management of acute renal failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Crit Care Resusc. 9 (1): 60–8. PMID 17352669.

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