Sjögren's syndrome physical examination
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Sjögren's syndrome Microchapters
Sjögren's syndrome physical examination On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Sjögren's syndrome physical examination
- Physical examination of patients with is usually remarkable for dryness of all mucous membranes such as mouth, eyes, lips, anal and rectal.
Appearance of the Patient
- Patients with Sjögren's syndrome usually appear good.
- Vital sign might be normal.
- Partial or complete loss of sweating
- Dry, sparse, and brittle hair
- Diffuse alopecia may involve the scalp, limbs, axilla, or pubis
- Nail folds may show capillaroscopic abnormalities
- Nonpalpable or palpable, vasculitic purpura, 2-3 mm lesions on the lower extremities
- Annular erythema with scales on the face and neck
- Mucous dryness
- Red, smooth, and dry tongue
- Hyperlobulated tongue with loss of filiform papillae
- Absence of salivary pooling under the tongue
- Dental caries
- Gingival inflammation
- Red, dry, and scaly lips
- Cracks at the corners of the mouth
- Chronic oral candidiasis
- Bilateral parotid gland enlargement
- Cardiovascular examination of patients with Sjögren's syndrome is usually normal.
- Back examination of patients with Sjögren's syndrome is usually normal.
- Irritated bladder
- Suprapubic tenderness
- Atrophic changes in the vulva and vagin
- Dryness of the anal and rectal mucous membranes
- Patient is usually oriented to persons, place, and time.
- Glasgow coma scale is 15/15
- Paraparesis maybe present
- Paraplegia may be present
- Symmetrical, polyarticular, inflammatory arthritis
- Lopate G, Pestronk A, Al-Lozi M, Lynch T, Florence J, Miller T, Levine T, Rampy T, Beson B, Ramneantu I (May 2006). "Peripheral neuropathy in an outpatient cohort of patients with Sjögren's syndrome". Muscle Nerve. 33 (5): 672–6. doi:10.1002/mus.20514. PMID 16453296.
- Antoniazzi RP, Miranda LA, Zanatta FB, Islabão AG, Gustafsson A, Chiapinotto GA, Oppermann RV (March 2009). "Periodontal conditions of individuals with Sjögren's syndrome". J. Periodontol. 80 (3): 429–35. doi:10.1902/jop.2009.080350. PMID 19254127.
- Riccieri V, Sciarra I, Ceccarelli F, Alessandri C, Croia C, Vasile M, Modesti MG, Priori R, Valesini G (June 2009). "Nailfold capillaroscopy abnormalities are associated with the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies in Sjogren's syndrome". Rheumatology (Oxford). 48 (6): 704–6. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kep051. PMID 19307256.
- Ren H, Wang WM, Chen XN, Zhang W, Pan XX, Wang XL, Lin Y, Zhang S, Chen N (February 2008). "Renal involvement and followup of 130 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome". J. Rheumatol. 35 (2): 278–84. PMID 18085734.
- Versura P, Frigato M, Cellini M, Mulè R, Malavolta N, Campos EC (February 2007). "Diagnostic performance of tear function tests in Sjogren's syndrome patients". Eye (Lond). 21 (2): 229–37. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6702204. PMID 16397619.
- Lemp MA (September 2008). "Advances in understanding and managing dry eye disease". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146 (3): 350–356. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2008.05.016. PMID 18599017.