Sjögren's syndrome causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farima Kahe M.D. [2]


Common causes of Sjögren's syndrome include viral infection such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Coxsackie virus, hepatitis C virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), Retroviruses and genetic factors.


Life-threatening Causes

  • HIV is a life-threatening cause of Sjögren's syndrome.

Common Causes

Sjögren's syndrome may be caused by:[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Coxsackie virus, hepatitis C virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) , Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), Retroviruses, HTLV-I , Human endogenous retrovirus and LTRs, HIV
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

List the causes of the disease in alphabetical order.

  • Coxsackie virus
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • HIV
  • HTLV-I
  • Human endogenous retrovirus and LTRs
  • Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)
  • Genetic factors
  • Retroviruses


  1. Biberfeld P, Petrén AL, Eklund A, Lindemalm C, Barkhem T, Ekman M, Ablashi D, Salahuddin Z (September 1988). "Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6, HBLV) in sarcoidosis and lymphoproliferative disorders". J. Virol. Methods. 21 (1–4): 49–59. PMID 3053745.
  2. Fox RI (September 1994). "Epidemiology, pathogenesis, animal models, and treatment of Sjögren's syndrome". Curr Opin Rheumatol. 6 (5): 501–8. PMID 7993708.
  3. Sumida T, Yonaha F, Maeda T, Kita Y, Iwamoto I, Koike T, Yoshida S (April 1994). "Expression of sequences homologous to HTLV-I tax gene in the labial salivary glands of Japanese patients with Sjögren's syndrome". Arthritis Rheum. 37 (4): 545–50. PMID 8147932.
  4. Kordossis T, Paikos S, Aroni K, Kitsanta P, Dimitrakopoulos A, Kavouklis E, Alevizou V, Kyriaki P, Skopouli FN, Moutsopoulos HM (June 1998). "Prevalence of Sjögren's-like syndrome in a cohort of HIV-1-positive patients: descriptive pathology and immunopathology". Br. J. Rheumatol. 37 (6): 691–5. PMID 9667626.
  5. Haddad J, Deny P, Munz-Gotheil C, Ambrosini JC, Trinchet JC, Pateron D, Mal F, Callard P, Beaugrand M (February 1992). "Lymphocytic sialadenitis of Sjögren's syndrome associated with chronic hepatitis C virus liver disease". Lancet. 339 (8789): 321–3. PMID 1346409.
  6. Terada K, Katamine S, Eguchi K, Moriuchi R, Kita M, Shimada H, Yamashita I, Iwata K, Tsuji Y, Nagataki S (October 1994). "Prevalence of serum and salivary antibodies to HTLV-1 in Sjögren's syndrome". Lancet. 344 (8930): 1116–9. PMID 7934493.