Sepsis causes

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Sepsis Microchapters


Patient Information (Adult)

Patient Information (Neonatal)




Differentiating Sepsis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


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Echocardiography or Ultrasound

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Medical Therapy

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Priyamvada Singh, M.B.B.S. [2]


The process of infection by bacteria or fungi can result in systemic signs and symptoms that are variously described. In rough order of severity, these are bacteremia or fungemia; septicemia; sepsis, severe sepsis or sepsis syndrome; septic shock; refractory septic shock; multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and death. The condition develops as a response to certain microbial molecules which trigger the production and release of cellular mediators, such as tumor necrosis factors (TNF); these act to stimulate immune response.[1]


Life Threatening Causes

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition, if left untreated it results in death.

Common Causes

Sepsis is caused by a bacterial infection that can begin anywhere in the body. Common places where an infection might start include:


Common organisms responsible for sepsis includes:[2][3]

Aerobic bacteria Anaerobes bacteria Fungal Parasite

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Acute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial ring abscess, subacute bacterial endocarditis
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Aldesleukin,Aprotinin, Boceprevir, Caspofungin acetate, Ceritinib, Crizotinib, Cytarabine, Dactinomycin, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Felbamate, Ixabepilone, Meropenem, Mitomycin, Oxaprozin, Pergolide, Pralatrexate, , Pramipexole, Sargramostim, Sipuleucel-T, Sirolimus, Strontium chloride, Tiagabine, Tocilizumab, Vedolizumab
Ear Nose Throat Bronchitis, otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Abscess, Bicalutamide, esophagitis, gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, instrumentation, intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, small intestine disorder
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus,

Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Entamoeba histolytica

Musculoskeletal / Ortho Osteomyelitis, wound infections
Neurologic Acute bacterial meningitis
Nutritional / Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Community-acquired pneumonia, empyema, lung abscess
Renal / Electrolyte Acute prostatitis/abscess, catheter-associated bacteriuria, cervicitis, chronic kidney disease, cystitis, instrumentation, intranephric abscess or perinephric abscess, pyelonephritis, renal calculi, urethritis, urinary tract obstruction, vaginitis
Rheum / Immune / Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

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  1. Mayr FB, Yende S, Angus DC (2014). "Epidemiology of severe sepsis". Virulence. 5 (1): 4–11. doi:10.4161/viru.27372. PMC 3916382. PMID 24335434.
  2. Annane D, Aegerter P, Jars-Guincestre MC, Guidet B (2003). "Current epidemiology of septic shock: the CUB-Réa Network". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 168 (2): 165–72. doi:10.1164/rccm.2201087. PMID 12851245.
  3. Pronovost P, Needham D, Berenholtz S, Sinopoli D, Chu H, Cosgrove S, Sexton B, Hyzy R, Welsh R, Roth G, Bander J, Kepros J, Goeschel C (2006). "An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (26): 2725–32. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa061115. PMID 17192537.

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