Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

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Overview

Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria.

Below is a list of the winners of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) from 1901 to the present, administered by the Nobel Foundation, in Stockholm, Sweden.[1]

In some instances, the national status (nation state) of some countries changed after a Nobel laureate lived in the country and became a Nobel Laureate.

The flag that precedes the country of citizenship reflects the earlier of the following circumstances:

  1. the state of the country when the Nobel Laureate emigrated; or
  2. the state of the country when he/she became a Nobel Laureate.

Some laureates obtained additional citizenships during their lifetime.

For those with multiple citizenships, the year they obtained an additional citizenship, when known, precedes the country of citizenship.

For Nobel Laureates who obtained additional citizenships after winning the Nobel Prize, the flag that precedes the country of citizenship reflects the earlier of the following two circumstances:

  1. the state of the country at their death; or
  2. the current state of the country.

Laureates

Year Name Nationality Motivation
1901 Emil Adolf von Behring Template:Country data German Empire "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[2]
1902 Ronald Ross Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[3]
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen Template:Country data Denmark "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[4]
1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Flag of Russia Russian Empire "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"[5]
1905 Robert Koch Template:Country data German Empire "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"[6]
1906 Camillo Golgi
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Flag of Italy Italy
Template:Country data Spain
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"[7]
1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Flag of France France "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"[8]
1908 Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov
Paul Ehrlich
Flag of Russia Russian Empire
Template:Country data German Empire
"in recognition of their work on immunity"[9]
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher Template:Country data Switzerland "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[10]
1910 Albrecht Kossel Template:Country data German Empire "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"[11]
1911 Allvar Gullstrand Template:Country data Sweden "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"[12]
1912 Alexis Carrel Flag of France France "in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[13]
1913 Charles Robert Richet Flag of France France "in recognition of his work onanaphylaxis"[14]
1914 Robert Bárány Template:Country data Austria "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[15]
1915 [No award]
1916 [No award]
1917 [No award]
1918 [No award]
1919 Jules Bordet Template:Country data Belgium "for his discoveries relating to immunity"[16]
1920 Schack August Steenberg Krogh Template:Country data Denmark "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism" (for showing that the gas exchange in the lungs is ordinary diffusion)[17]
1921 [No award]
1922* Archibald Vivian Hill Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"[18]
1922* Otto Fritz Meyerhof Template:Country data German Empire "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[18]
1923 Frederick Grant Banting
John James Richard Macleod
Template:Country data Canada
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for the discovery of insulin"[19]
1924 Willem Einthoven Template:Country data Netherlands "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[20]
1925 [No award]
1926 Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger Template:Country data Denmark "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[21]
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg Template:Country data Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"[22]
1928 Charles Jules Henri Nicolle Flag of France France "for his work on typhus"[23]
1929* Christiaan Eijkman Template:Country data Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"[24]
1929* Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"[24]
1930 Karl Landsteiner Template:Country data Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[25]
1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg Template:Country data German Empire "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[26]
1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
Edgar Douglas Adrian
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"[27]
1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan Template:Country data USA "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"[28]
1934 George Hoyt Whipple
George Richards Minot
William Parry Murphy,
Template:Country data USA
Template:Country data USA
Template:Country data USA
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[29]
1935 Hans Spemann Template:Country data German Empire "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[30]
1936 Sir Henry Hallett Dale
Otto Loewi
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom;
Template:Country data German Empire 1903: Template:Country data Austria 1946: Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[31]
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt Template:Country data Hungary "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[32]
1938 Corneille Jean François Heymans Template:Country data Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[33]
1939 Gerhard Domagk Template:Country data German Empire "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"[34]
1940 [No award]
1941 [No award]
1942 [No award]
1943* Carl Peter Henrik Dam Template:Country data Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K"[35]
1943* Edward Adelbert Doisy Flag of the United States United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[35]
1944 Joseph Erlanger
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[36]
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming
Ernst Boris Chain
Sir Howard Walter Florey,
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom;
Template:Country data German Empire Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom;
Template:Country data Australia Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[37]
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller Flag of the United States United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[38]
1947* Carl Ferdinand Cori
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
Template:Country data Czech Republic Flag of the United States United States;
Template:Country data Czech Republic Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[39]
1947* Bernardo Alberto Houssay Template:Country data Argentina "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"[39]
1948 Paul Hermann Müller Template:Country data Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[40]
1949* Walter Rudolf Hess Template:Country data Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"[41]
1949* Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz Template:Country data Portugal "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"[41]
1950 Edward Calvin Kendall
Tadeusz Reichstein
Philip Showalter Hench
Flag of the United States United States;
Template:Country data Poland Template:Country data Switzerland;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[42]
1951 Max Theiler Template:Country data South Africa Template:Country data Switzerland "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[43]
1952 Selman Abraham Waksman Flag of Russia Russian Empire, 1916: Flag of the United States United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[44]
1953* Hans Adolf Krebs Template:Country data German Empire Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[45]
1953* Fritz Albert Lipmann Template:Country data German Empire Flag of the United States United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[45]
1954 John Franklin Enders
Thomas Huckle Weller
Frederick Chapman Robbins
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"[46]
1955 Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell Template:Country data Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"[47]
1956 André Frédéric Cournand
Werner Forssmann
Dickinson W. Richards
Flag of France France, 1941: Flag of the United States United States;
Template:Country data West Germany
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"[48]
1957 Daniel Bovet Template:Country data Switzerland Flag of Italy Italy "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[49]
1958* George Wells Beadle
Edward Lawrie Tatum
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"[50]
1958* Joshua Lederberg Flag of the United States United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[50]
1959 Severo Ochoa
Arthur Kornberg
Template:Country data Spain Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[51]
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Peter Brian Medawar
Template:Country data Australia Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom;
Template:Country data Brazil Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[52]
1961 Georg von Békésy Template:Country data Hungary "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[53]
1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick
James Dewey Watson
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom;
Flag of the United States United States;
Template:Country data New Zealand Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[54]
1963 Sir John Carew Eccles
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Andrew Fielding Huxley
Template:Country data Australia
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[55]
1964 Konrad Bloch
Feodor Lynen
Template:Country data German Empire, Flag of the United States United States
Template:Country data West Germany
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[56]
1965 François Jacob
André Lwoff
Jacques Monod
Flag of France France
Flag of France France
Flag of France France
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[57]
1966* Peyton Rous Flag of the United States United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"[58]
1966* Charles B. Huggins Template:Country data Canada Flag of the United States United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"[58]
1967 Ragnar Granit
Haldan Keffer Hartline
George Wald
Template:Country data Finland 1940: Template:Country data Sweden;
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[59]
1968 Robert W. Holley
Har Gobind Khorana
Marshall W. Nirenberg
Flag of the United States United States;
Template:Country data India 1966: Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[60]
1969 Max Delbrück
Alfred Hershey
Salvador E. Luria
Template:Country data West Germany Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of Italy Italy
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[61]
1970 Sir Bernard Katz
Ulf von Euler
Julius Axelrod
Template:Country data Germany 1941: Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom;
Template:Country data Sweden
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[62]
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. Flag of the United States United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"[63]
1972 Gerald M. Edelman
Rodney R. Porter
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[64]
1973 Karl von Frisch
Konrad Lorenz
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Template:Country data Austria
Template:Country data Austria
Template:Country data Netherlands
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"[65]
1974 Albert Claude
Christian de Duve
George E. Palade
Template:Country data Belgium;
Template:Country data Belgium;
Template:Country data Romania 1952: Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[66]
1975 David Baltimore
Renato Dulbecco
Howard Martin Temin
Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of Italy Italy Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[67]
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg
D. Carleton Gajdusek
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[68]
1977* Roger Guillemin
Andrew Wiktor Schally
Flag of France France 1965: Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[69]
1977* Rosalyn Yalow Flag of the United States United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[69]
1978 Werner Arber
Daniel Nathans
Hamilton O. Smith
Template:Country data Switzerland
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[70]
1979 Allan M. Cormack
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
Template:Country data South Africa 1966: Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"[71]
1980 Baruj Benacerraf
Jean Dausset
George D. Snell
Template:Country data Venezuela 1943: Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of France France;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[72]
1981* Roger W. Sperry Flag of the United States United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"[73]
1981* David H. Hubel
Torsten N. Wiesel
Flag of the United States United States
Template:Country data Sweden
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[73]
1982 Sune Bergström
Bengt I. Samuelsson
John R. Vane
Template:Country data Sweden
Template:Country data Sweden
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[74]
1983 Barbara McClintock Flag of the United States United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[75]
1984 Niels K. Jerne
Georges J.F. Köhler
César Milstein
Template:Country data Denmark;
Template:Country data West Germany;
Template:Country data Argentina Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[76]
1985 Michael S. Brown
Joseph L. Goldstein
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[77]
1986 Stanley Cohen
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of Italy Italy Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries of growth factors"[78]
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Template:Country data Japan "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"[79]
1988 Sir James W. Black
Gertrude B. Elion
George H. Hitchings
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[80]
1989 J. Michael Bishop
Harold E. Varmus
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[81]
1990 Joseph E. Murray
E. Donnall Thomas
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[82]
1991 Erwin Neher
Bert Sakmann
Template:Country data Germany
Template:Country data Germany
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"[83]
1992 Edmond H. Fischer
Edwin G. Krebs
Template:Country data Switzerland Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[84]
1993 Richard J. Roberts
Phillip A. Sharp
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries of split genes"[85]
1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Martin Rodbell
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[86]
1995 Edward B. Lewis
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Eric F. Wieschaus
Flag of the United States United States
Template:Country data Germany
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[87]
1996 Peter C. Doherty
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Template:Country data Australia
Template:Country data Switzerland
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[88]
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner Flag of the United States United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"[89]
1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Louis J. Ignarro
Ferid Murad
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[90]
1999 Günter Blobel Template:Country data Germany 1987: Flag of the United States United States "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[91]
2000 Arvid Carlsson
Paul Greengard
Eric R. Kandel
Template:Country data Sweden
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[92]
2001 Leland H. Hartwell
R. Timothy (Tim) Hunt
Sir Paul M. Nurse
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"[93]
2002 Sydney Brenner
H. Robert Horvitz
John E. Sulston
Template:Country data South Africa Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 2003: Template:Country data Singapore[94] (honorary);
Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[95]
2003 Paul Lauterbur
Sir Peter Mansfield
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"[96]
2004 Richard Axel
Linda B. Buck
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[97]
2005 Barry J. Marshall
J. Robin Warren
Template:Country data Australia
Template:Country data Australia
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"[98]
2006 Andrew Z. Fire
Craig C. Mello
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[99]
2007 Mario Capecchi
Sir Martin Evans
Oliver Smithies
Flag of Italy Italy Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom;
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[100]

* Years with multiple motivations for a Nobel Prize.

References

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