Migraine resident survival guide

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Migraine Resident Survival Guide Microchapters
Overview
Causes
Treatment
Do's
Don'ts

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Moises Romo, M.D.

Synonyms and Keywords: Approach to migraine, Migraine workup, Migraine management

Overview

Migraines are a neurological disease best known as severe headaches. Usually, migraines cause episodes of severe or moderate headache (which is often one-sided and pulsating) lasting between several hours to three days, accompanied by gastrointestinal upsets, such as nausea and vomiting, and a heightened sensitivity to bright lights (photophobia) and noise (phonophobia). Approximately one-third of people who experience migraines get a preceding aura.[1] Migraines' secondary characteristics are inconsistent. Triggers precipitating a particular episode of migraine vary widely. The efficacy of the simplest treatment, applying warmth or coolness to the affected area of the head, varies between persons, sometimes worsening the migraine.


Causes

Life-threatening causes

Common Causes[2][3][4][5][6]


Treatment

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the treatment of migraine according the American Academy of Neurology guidelines:[7][8][9]


 
 
 
Patient presents with a complaint of headache
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does patient have new or different headaches in past 6 mo?
 
Yes
 
Evaluate red flags
• Systemic symptoms: fever, chills, meningismus
• Secondary risk factors: malignancy, immunosuppression
Neurologic symptoms or abnormal signs
• Onset: sudden/abrupt
• Older age >50 years
• Pattern change: first headache or different from previous headache history
 
Yes to any
 
Appropriate pain management, consultations and admission
 
Appropriate evaluation for secondary causes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Are headaches recurrent that interfere with work, family, or social function?
2. Do headaches last at least 4 h if untreated?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes to both questions
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diagnose migraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Evaluate yellow flags
Drug seeking with underlying chronic pain
• Recurrent ED visits without appropriate outpatient management/ PCP follow-up or
• OARRS report shows opiate use ± multisourcing
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assess for treatment contraindications: pregnancy, allergies, comorbid conditions
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Avoid opioids
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Treat with
Ketorolac 30 mg IVP or 30-60 mg IM
+
Metoclopramide 10 mg IVP over 2 min or Ondansetron 8 mg IVP
+
Diphenhydramine 25-50 mg
+
IVP IV fl uids for hydration
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
More than 50% relief?
 
Yes
 
Discharge patient
1. Disposition
2. No opiate scripts
3. If responsive to ketorolac, discharge with toradol script 10 mg PO tid for up to 5 days
4. If response to sumatriptan, discharge with script
5. If response to DHE, discharge with Migranal nasal spray script or DHE sc script
6. If responsive to valproate, valproic taper 250 tid for 3 d, 250 bid for3 d, 250 qd for 3 d, then stop
7. Discharge with PCP follow-up
8. If no PCP, refer to PCP
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Treat with
Sumatriptan: 6 mg sc — may repeat in 1 h if no response. (Max dose 12 mg in 24-h period
OR
DHE-45: Start with 0.25 mg IVP over 1 min or sc. If needed repeat in 1 h 1 mg IVP over 1 min

or 1 mg sc. or choose an antiemetic: Prochlorperazine 10 mg IVP over 30 sec q2-4h prn
OR
Metoclopramide: 10 mg IVP over 2 min


OR
Ondansetron: 4-8 mg IVP over 30 sec
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
More than 50% relief?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Admit the patient and investigate further
 
 
 


Do's


Don'ts


References

  1. "Guidelines for all healthcare professionals in the diagnosis and management of migraine, tension-type, cluster and medication-overuse headache, Jan 2007,British Association for the Study of Headache" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  2. "NINDS Migraine Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  3. "Advances in Migraine Prophylaxis: Current State of the Art and Future Prospects" (PDF). National Headache Foundation (CME monograph). Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  4. "Migraine: diagnosis, management, and new treatment options, Gallagher RM, Cutrer FM, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, School of Medicine, Stratford, USA". The American Journal of Managed Care, PMID: 11859906. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  5. Ulrich V, Gervil M, Kyvik KO, Olesen J, Russell MB (1999). "The inheritance of migraine with aura estimated by means of structural equation modelling". Journal of Medical Genetics. 36 (3): 225–7. PMC 1734315. PMID 10204850. Retrieved 2012-08-30. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Gervil M, Ulrich V, Kaprio J, Olesen J, Russell MB (1999). "The relative role of genetic and environmental factors in migraine without aura". Neurology. 53 (5): 995–9. PMID 10496258. Retrieved 2012-08-30. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. "An Algorithm of Migraine Treatment - touchNEUROLOGY".
  8. "www.painmedicinenews.com".
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Migraine and Meningitis | JAMA Neurology | JAMA Network".
  10. Montemayor ET, Long B, Pfaff JA, Moore GP (August 2018). "Patient with a Subarachnoid Headache". Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med. 2 (3): 193–196. doi:10.5811/cpcem.2018.5.38417. PMC 6075496. PMID 30083630.
  11. Sina F, Razmeh S, Habibzadeh N, Zavari A, Nabovvati M (August 2017). "Migraine headache in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension". Neurol Int. 9 (3): 7280. doi:10.4081/or.2017.7280. PMC 5641834. PMID 29071043.
  12. "Ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin (transdermal) Uses, Side Effects & Warnings - Drugs.com".
  13. Aleksenko D, Maini K, Sánchez-Manso JC. PMID 29262094. Missing or empty |title= (help)