Interferon type I
Human type I interferons comprise a vast and growing group of IFN proteins.
Homologous molecules to type I IFNs are found in many species, including most mammals, and some have been identified in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish species.
The IFN-α proteins come in 13 subtypes that are called IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA4, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA7, IFNA8, IFNA10, IFNA13, IFNA14, IFNA16, IFNA17, IFNA21. These genes for these IFN-α molecules are found together in a cluster on chromosome 9.
IFN-ε, –κ, -τ, and –ζ
IFN-ε, –κ, -τ, and –ζ appear, at this time, to come in a single isoform in humans, IFNK.
Sources and functions
IFN-α and IFN-β are secreted by many cell types including lymphocytes (NK cells, B-cells and T-cells), macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts and others. They stimulate both macrophages and NK cells to elicit an anti-viral response, and are also active against tumors.
IFN-ω is released by leukocytes at the site of viral infection or tumors.
IFN-α acts as a pyrogenic factor by altering the activity of thermosensitive neurons in the hypothalamus thus causing fever. It does this by binding to opioid receptors and eliciting the release of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2).
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- Oritani and Tomiyama, Interferon-ζ/limitin: Novel type I Interferon that displays a narrow range of biological activity. International journal of hematology, 2004, Volume 80, pages 325-331 .
- Hardy et al., Characterization of the type I interferon locus and identification of novel genes. Genomics, 2004, Volume 84 pages 331-345.
- Todd and Naylor, New chromosomal mapping assignments for argininosuccinate synthetase pseudogene 1, interferon-beta 3 gene, and the diazepam binding inhibitor gene. Somat. Cell. Mol. Genet. 1992 Volume 18, pages 381-5.
- Wang et al., Fever of recombinant human interferon-alpha is mediated by opioid domain interaction with opioid receptor inducing prostaglandin E2. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Nov;156(1-2):107-12.