Hypogonadism differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ahmed Elsaiey, MBBCH [2]

Overview

Hypogonadism must be differentiated from diseases that cause delayed puberty or infertility. These diseases include congenital diseases as Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome and cryptorchidism. The diseases also include testicular torsion and orchitis in males, polycystic ovary syndrome, pelvic inflammatory disease, and endometriosis in females.

Differentiating Hypogonadism from other Diseases

Hypogonadism must be differentiated from diseases that cause delayed puberty or infertility. These diseases include congenital diseases as Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome and cryptorchidism. The diseases also include testicular torsion and orchitis in males, polycystic ovary syndrome, pelvic inflammatory disease, and endometriosis in females.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Diseases Clinical findings Diagnosis Manangement
Congenital diseases Klinefelter syndrome
  • Language learning impairment
Kallmann syndrome
Cryptorchidism
  • Treatment of cryptorchidism is mainly surgical in order to reduce the risk of malignancy
  • Orchiopexy surgery is recommended in order to reposition the undecsended testes.
Male diseases Testicular torsion Management is mainly surgical through detorsion and fixation of the affected testes.
Orchitis
Female diseases Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Endometriosis Medical therapy:

Surgery:

References

  1. Denschlag, Dominik, MD; Clemens, Tempfer, MD; Kunze, Myriam, MD; Wolff, Gerhard, MD; Keck, Christoph, MD (October 2004), "Assisted reproductive techniques in patients with Klinefelter syndrome: A critical review", Fertility and Sterility, 82 (4): 775–779, doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2003.09.085
  2. Virtanen HE, Bjerknes R, Cortes D, Jørgensen N, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Thorsson AV; et al. (2007). "Cryptorchidism: classification, prevalence and long-term consequences". Acta Paediatr. 96 (5): 611–6. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00241.x. PMID 17462053.
  3. Schmitz D, Safranek S (2009). "Clinical inquiries. How useful is a physical exam in diagnosing testicular torsion?". J Fam Pract. 58 (8): 433–4. PMID 19679025.
  4. Trojian TH, Lishnak TS, Heiman D (2009). "Epididymitis and orchitis: an overview". Am Fam Physician. 79 (7): 583–7. PMID 19378875.
  5. Stewart A, Ubee SS, Davies H (2011). "Epididymo-orchitis". BMJ. 342: d1543. PMID 21490048.
  6. Christine Cortet-Rudelli, Didier Dewailly (2006). "Diagnosis of Hyperandrogenism in Female Adolescents". Hyperandrogenism in Adolescent Girls. Armenian Health Network, Health.am. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Legro RS, Barnhart HX, Schlaff WD (2007). "Clomiphene, Metformin, or Both for Infertility in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome". N Engl J Med. 356 (6): 551–566. PMID 17287476.
  8. Brunham RC, Gottlieb SL, Paavonen J (2015). "Pelvic inflammatory disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 372 (21): 2039–48. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1411426. PMID 25992748.
  9. Ford GW, Decker CF (2016). "Pelvic inflammatory disease". Dis Mon. 62 (8): 301–5. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2016.03.015. PMID 27107781.
  10. Murphy AA (2002). "Clinical aspects of endometriosis". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 955: 1–10, discussion 34-6, 396–406. PMID 11949938.