Hypocalcemia causes

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Hypocalcemia Microchapters


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Historical Perspective




Differentiating Hypocalcemia from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vamsikrishna Gunnam M.B.B.S [2]


Hypocalcemia can be the consequence of multiple disease processes, some of which will be mentioned in the following discussion. Common causes of hypocalcemia include vitamin D insufficiency, hypoparathyroidism, renal disease, pseudohypoparathyroidism, hypomagnesemia, drugs and Fanconi syndrome etc.


Common Causes

Common causes of hypocalcemia may include:[1]

Less Common Causes

Lessn common causes of hypocalcemia may include:[2]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical / poisoning Alcohol abuse
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Anticonvulsant therapy, Cabozantinib, Capreomycin sulfate, Chelation therapy, Cinacalcet, Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene, Cytarabine, Dactinomycin, Diuretic therapy, Drugs, Edetate disodium, Enemas, Gallium nitrate, Gentamicin, ibandronate, laxatives, Medroxyprogesterone, Nilotinib, Oxcarbazepine, Pamidronic acid, Pentamidine Isethionate, Pramipexole, Sorafenib, Steroid, Thalidomide, Tolbutamide therapy
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Absent parathyroid hormone (PTH), Acquired hypoparathyroidism, Adrenocortical hyperplasia, Deficient PTH, Excessive secretion of calcitonin, Familial hypocalcemia, Following thyroidectomy, Hereditary hypoparathyroidism, "Hungry Bone Syndrome" following parathyroidectomy, Hypoparathyroidism, Hypoproteinemia, Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Osteitis fibrosa following parathyroidectomy, Osteoporosis, Pseudohypoparathyroidism, Thyroid cancer
Environmental Decreased ultraviolet/sun (vitamin D deficiency), Defective Vitamin D metabolism, Exposure to hydrofluoric acid
Gastroenterologic Acute pancreatitis, Cirrhosis, Decreased dietary intake, Eating disorders, Enemas, laxatives, Intestinal malabsorption, Malabsorption, Maldigestion, Pancreatitis, Rickets, Short bowel syndrome, Vitamin-D dependent rickets, type I
Genetic DiGeorge's Syndrome, Familial hypocalcemia
Hematologic Hypoalbuminemia (pseudohypocalcemia), Transfusion of citrated blood, Tumor lysis syndrome
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Sepsis, Septic shock
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Enhanced bone formation, Excessive secretion of calcitonin, Neonatal tetany, Osteitis fibrosa following parathyroidectomy, Osteoporosis, Rickets, Vitamin-D dependent rickets, type I
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic Absent active vitamin D, Decreased dietary intake, Hyperphosphatemia, Intestinal malabsorption, Intravenous phosphate administration, Magnesium depletion, Rickets, Vitamin D deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic Breast cancer
Oncologic Breast cancer, Bronchial cancer, Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Osteoblastic metastases, Thyroid cancer, Tumor lysis syndrome
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Magnesium over supplementation, Prolonged use of medications/laxatives containing magnesium
Psychiatric Eating disorders
Pulmonary Bronchial cancer, Hyperventilation
Renal / Electrolyte Acute renal failure, Alkalosis, Chronic renal failure, Hypomagnesemia, Hypoproteinemia, Increased diuresis with physiologic saline solution, Intravenous phosphate administration, Kidney diseases with reduced formation of activated vitamin D, Magnesium depletion, Magnesium over supplementation, Nephrotic syndrome, Renal failure, Rhabdomyolysis, Severe acute hyperphosphatemia
Rheum / Immune / Allergy DiGeorge's Syndrome, Osteitis fibrosa following parathyroidectomy, Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Burns
Urologic Acute renal failure, Chronic renal failure, Hypoproteinemia, Renal failure
Miscellaneous Postoperative, Transfusion of citrated blood

Causes in Alphabetical Order

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  1. Fong J, Khan A (February 2012). "Hypocalcemia: updates in diagnosis and management for primary care". Can Fam Physician. 58 (2): 158–62. PMC 3279267. PMID 22439169.
  2. Fong J, Khan A (February 2012). "Hypocalcemia: updates in diagnosis and management for primary care". Can Fam Physician. 58 (2): 158–62. PMC 3279267. PMID 22439169.

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