Gallium nitrate

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Gallium nitrate
Black Box Warning
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aparna Vuppala, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Black Box Warning

WARNING
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
  • Concurrent use of gallium nitrate with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, amphotericin B) may increase the risk for developing severe renal insufficiency in patients with cancer-related hypercalcemia. If use of a potentially nephrotoxic drug is indicated during gallium nitrate therapy, gallium nitrate administration should be discontinued and it is recommended that hydration be continued for several days after administration of the potentially nephrotoxic drug.Serum creatinine and urine output should be closely monitored during and subsequent to this period. Gallium nitrate therapy should be discontinued if the serum creatinine level exceeds 2.5 mg/dL.

Overview

Gallium nitrate is an calcium regulator that is FDA approved for the treatment of clearly symptomatic cancer-related hypercalcemia that has not responded to adequate hydration. There is a Black Box Warning for this drug as shown here. Common adverse reactions include hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia ,mild respiratory alkalosis , anemia ,hypotension, nausea and/or vomiting, tachycardia, lethargy, confusion, dreams and hallucinations, diarrhea, constipation, lower extremity edema, hypothermia, fever, dyspnea, rales and rhonchi, anemia, leukopenia, paresthesia, skin rash, pleural effusion, and pulmonary infiltrates.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Cancer-related hypercalcemia
Dosing Information
  • The usual recommended dose of Gallium nitrate is 200 mg per square meter of body surface area (200 mg/m2) daily for 5 consecutive days. In patients with mild hypercalcemia and few symptoms, a lower dosage of 100 mg/m2/day for 5 days may be considered. If serum calcium levels are lowered into the normal range in less than 5 days, treatment may be discontinued early. The daily dose must be administered as an intravenous infusion over 24 hours. The daily dose should be diluted, preferably in 1,000 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection USP, for administration as an intravenous infusion over 24 hours. Adequate hydration must be maintained throughout the treatment period, with careful attention to avoid overhydration in patients with compromised cardiovascular status. Controlled studies have not been undertaken to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of retreatment with gallium nitrate.
  • When Gallium nitrate is added to either 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP or 5% Dextrose Injection USP, it is stable for 48 hours at room temperature (15°C to 30°C) or for 7 days if stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C). Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Gallium nitrate in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Gallium nitrate in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Gallium nitrate in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Gallium nitrate in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Gallium nitrate in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • Gallium nitrate should not be administered to patients with severe renal impairment (serum creatinine > 2.5 mg/dL).

Warnings

WARNING
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
  • Concurrent use of gallium nitrate with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, amphotericin B) may increase the risk for developing severe renal insufficiency in patients with cancer-related hypercalcemia. If use of a potentially nephrotoxic drug is indicated during gallium nitrate therapy, gallium nitrate administration should be discontinued and it is recommended that hydration be continued for several days after administration of the potentially nephrotoxic drug.Serum creatinine and urine output should be closely monitored during and subsequent to this period. Gallium nitrate therapy should be discontinued if the serum creatinine level exceeds 2.5 mg/dL.
  • The hypercalcemic state in cancer patients is commonly associated with impaired renal function. Abnormalities in renal function (elevated BUN and/or serum creatinine) have been observed in clinical trials with Gallium nitrate . It is strongly recommended that serum creatinine be monitored during Gallium nitrate therapy. Since patients with cancer-related hypercalcemia are frequently dehydrated, it is important that such patients be adequately hydrated with oral and/or intravenous fluids (preferably saline) and that a satisfactory urine output (a urine output of 2 L/day is recommended) be established before therapy with Gallium nitrate is started. Adequate hydration should be maintained throughout the treatment period, with careful attention to avoid overhydration in patients with compromised cardiovascular status. Diuretic therapy should not be employed prior to correction of hypovolemia. Gallium nitrate therapy should be discontinued if the serum creatinine level exceeds 2.5 mg/dL.
  • The use of Gallium nitrate in patients with marked renal insufficiency (serum creatinine > 2.5 mg/dL) has not been systematically examined. If therapy is undertaken in patients with moderately impaired renal function (serum creatinine 2.0 to 2.5 mg/dL), frequent monitoring of the patient’s renal status is recommended. Treatment should be discontinued if the serum creatinine level exceeds 2.5 mg/dL.

Precautions

General
  • Asymptomatic or mild to moderate hypocalcemia (6.5 - 8.0 mg/dL, corrected for serum albumin) occurred in approximately 38% of patients treated with Gallium nitrate in the controlled clinical trial. One patient exhibited a positive Chvostek’s sign. If hypocalcemia occurs, Gallium nitrate therapy should be stopped and short-term calcium therapy may be necessary.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Kidney
  • Adverse renal effects, as demonstrated by rising BUN and creatinine, have been reported in about 12.5% of patients treated with Gallium nitrate . In a controlled clinical trial of patients with cancer-related hypercalcemia, two patients receiving Gallium nitrate and one patient receiving calcitonin developed acute renal failure. Due to the serious nature of the patients’ underlying conditions, the relationship of these events to the drug was unclear. Gallium nitrate should not be administered to patients with serum creatinine >2.5 mg/dL
Metabolic
  • Transient hypophosphatemia of mild-to-moderate degree may occur in up to 79% of hypercalcemic patients following treatment with Gallium nitrate . In a controlled clinical trial, 33% of patients had at least 1 serum phosphorus measurement between 1.5-2.4 mg/dL, while 46% of patients had at least 1 serum phosphorus value <1.5 mg/dL. Patients who develop hypophosphatemia may require oral phosphorus therapy.
  • Decreased serum bicarbonate, possibly secondary to mild respiratory alkalosis was reported in 40-50% of cancer patients treated with Gallium nitrate . The cause for this effect is not clear. This effect has been asymptomatic and has not required specific treatment.
Hematologic
  • The use of very high doses of gallium nitrate (up to 1400 mg/m2) in treating patients for advanced cancer has been associated with anemia, and several patients have received red blood cell transfusions. Due to the serious nature of the underlying illness, it is uncertain that the anemia was caused by gallium nitrate.
Blood Pressure
  • A decrease in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed several days after treatment with gallium nitrate in a controlled clinical trial. The decrease in blood pressure was asymptomatic and did not require specific treatment.
Visual and Auditory
  • In cancer chemotherapy trials, a small proportion (<1%) of patients treated with multiple high doses of gallium nitrate combined with other investigational anticancer drugs, have developed acute optic neuritis. While these patients were critically ill and had received multiple drugs, a reaction to high-dose gallium nitrate is possible. Most patients had full recovery; however, at least one case of permanent blindness has been reported. One patient with cancer-related hypercalcemia was reported to develop decreased hearing following gallium nitrate administration. Due to the patient’s underlying condition and concurrent therapies, the relationship of this event to gallium nitrate administration is unclear. Tinnitus and partial loss of auditory acuity have been reported rarely (<1%) in patients who received high-dose gallium nitrate as anticancer treatment.
Miscellaneous

Postmarketing Experience

There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience of Gallium nitrate in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

  • The concomitant use of highly nephrotoxic drugs in combination with Gallium nitrate may increase the risk for development of renal insufficiency . Available information does not indicate any adverse interaction with diuretics such as furosemide. A symptom complex of dyspnea (associated with interstitial pneumonitis in some instances), mouth soreness, and asthenia has been reported in a small number of multiple myeloma patients receiving low dose (40 mg) gallium nitrate subcutaneously in addition to oral cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The serious nature of the underlying condition of these patients precludes a precise understanding of the relationship of these events to either gallium nitrate treatment alone or with cyclophosphamide.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): C

  • Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with gallium nitrate. It is also not known whether gallium nitrate can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Gallium nitrate should be administered to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Gallium nitrate in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Gallium nitrate during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • It is not known whether gallium nitrate is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from gallium nitrate, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

  • The safety and effectiveness of Gallium nitrate in children have not been established.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Gallium nitrate with respect to geriatric patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Gallium nitrate with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Gallium nitrate with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Gallium nitrate in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Gallium nitrate in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Gallium nitrate in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Gallium nitrate in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Intravenous

Monitoring

  • Renal function (serum creatinine and BUN) and serum calcium must be closely monitored during Gallium nitrate therapy. In addition to baseline assessment, the suggested frequency of calcium and phosphorus determinations is daily and twice weekly, respectively. Gallium nitrate should be discontinued if the serum creatinine exceeds 2.5 mg/dL.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Gallium nitrate in the drug label.

Overdosage

  • Rapid intravenous infusion of gallium nitrate or use of doses higher than recommended (200 mg/m2) may cause nausea and vomiting and a substantially increased risk of renal insufficiency. In the event of overdosage, further drug administration should be discontinued, serum calcium should be monitored, and the patient should receive vigorous intravenous hydration, with or without diuretics, for 2-3 days. During this time period, renal function and urinary output should be carefully monitored so that fluid intake and output are balanced.

Pharmacology

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Mechanism of Action

  • Gallium nitrate exerts a hypocalcemic effect by inhibiting calcium resorption from bone, possibly by reducing increased bone turnover. Although in vitro and animal studies have been performed to investigate the mechanism of action of gallium nitrate, the precise mechanism for inhibiting calcium resorption has not been determined. No cytotoxic effects were observed on bone cells in drug-treated animals.

Structure

  • Gallium nitrate injection is a clear, colorless, odorless, sterile solution of gallium nitrate, a hydrated nitrate salt of the group IIIa element, gallium. Gallium nitrate is formed by the reaction of elemental gallium with nitric acid, followed by crystallization of the drug from the solution. The stable, nonahydrate, Ga(N03)3•9H2O is a white, slightly hygroscopic, crystalline powder of molecular weight 417.87, that is readily soluble in water. Each mL of Gallium nitrate (gallium nitrate injection) contains gallium nitrate 25 mg (on an anhydrous basis) and sodium citrate dihydrate 28.75 mg. The solution may contain sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment to 6.0-7.0.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Gallium nitrate in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Gallium nitrate was infused at a daily dose of 200 mg/m2 for 5 (n=2) or 7 (n=10) consecutive days to 12 cancer patients. In most patients apparent steady-state is achieved by 24 to 48 hours. The range of average steady-state plasma levels of gallium observed among 7 fully evaluable patients was between 1134 and 2399 ng/mL. The average plasma clearance of gallium (n=7) following daily infusion of gallium nitrate at a dose of 200 mg/m2 for 5 or 7 days was 0.15 L/hr/kg (range: 0.12 to 0.20 L/hr/kg). In one patient who received daily infusion doses of 100, 150 and 200 mg/m2 the apparent steady-state levels of gallium did not increase proportionally with an increase in dose. Gallium nitrate is not metabolized either by the liver or the kidney and appears to be significantly excreted via the kidney. Urinary excretion data for a dose of 200 mg/m2 has not been determined.
Cancer-Related Hypercalcemia
  • Hypercalcemia is a common problem in hospitalized patients with malignancy. It may affect 10-20% of patients with cancer. Different types of malignancy seem to vary in their propensity to cause hypercalcemia. A higher incidence of hypercalcemia has been observed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, multiple myeloma, kidney cancer, and cancer of head and neck. Hypercalcemia of malignancy seems to result from an imbalance between the net resorption of bone and urinary excretion of calcium. Patients with extensive osteolytic bone metastases frequently develop hypercalcemia: this type of hypercalcemia is common with primary breast cancer. Some of these patients have been reported to have increased renal tubular calcium resorption. Breast cancerBreast cancer cells have been reported to produce several potential bone-resorbing factors which stimulate the local osteoclast activity. Humoral hypercalcemia is common with the solid tumors of the lung, head and neck, kidney, and ovaries. Systemic factors (e.g., PTH-rP) produced either by the tumor or host cells have been implicated for the altered calcium fluxes between the extracellular fluid, the kidney, and the skeleton. About 30% of patients with myeloma develop hypercalcemia associated with extensive osteolytic lesions and impaired glomerular filtration. Myeloma cells have been reported to produce local factors that stimulate adjacent osteoclasts.
Hypocalcemic Activity
  • A randomized double-blind clinical study comparing Gallium nitrate with calcitonin was conducted in patients with a serum calcium concentration (corrected for albumin) ≥ 12.0 mg/dL following 2 days of hydration. Gallium nitrate was given as a continuous intravenous infusion at a dose of 200 mg/m2/day for 5 days and calcitonin was given intramuscularly at a dose of 8 I.U./kg every 6 hours for 5 days. Elevated serum calcium (corrected for albumin) was normalized in 75% (18 of 24) of the patients receiving Gallium nitrate and in 27% (7 of 26) of the patients receiving calcitonin (p=0.0016). The time-course of effect on serum calcium (corrected for albumin) is summarized in the following table.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The median duration of normocalcemia/hypocalcemia was 7.5 days for patients treated with Gallium nitrate and 1 day for patients treated with calcitonin. A total of 92% of patients treated with Gallium nitrate had a decrease in serum calcium (corrected for albumin) ≥ 2.0 mg/dL as compared to 54% of the patients treated with calcitonin (p=0.004).
  • An open-label, non-randomized study was conducted to examine a range of doses and dosing schedules of Gallium nitrate for control of cancer-related hypercalcemia. The principal dosing regimens were 100 and 200 mg/m2/day, administered as continuous intravenous infusions for 5 days. Gallium nitrate , at a dose of 200 mg/m2/day for 5 days was found to normalize elevated serum calcium levels (corrected for albumin) in 83% of patients as compared to 50% of patients receiving a dose of 100 mg/m2/day for 5 days. A decrease in serum calcium (corrected for albumin) ≥ 2.0 mg/dL was observed in 83% and 94% of patients treated with Gallium nitrate at dosages of 100 and 200 mg/m2/day for 5 days, respectively. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients responding to Gallium nitrate when considering either the presence or absence of bone metastasis, or whether the tumor histology was epidermoid or nonepidermoid.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of gallium nitrate. Gallium nitrate is not mutagenic in standard tests (i.e., Ames test and chromosomal aberration studies on human lymphocytes).

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies of Gallium nitrate in the drug label.

How Supplied

  • Gallium nitrate ® (gallium nitrate injection) is supplied as a 5-unit carton, NDC 66657-301-05.
  • Each carton contains 5 single-dose, flip-top vials (NDC 66657-301-01) each containing 500 mg of gallium nitrate (25 mg/mL) in 20 mL.

Storage

  • Store at controlled room temperature 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).
  • Contains no preservative. Discard unused portion.

Images

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Patient Counseling Information

There is limited information regarding Patient Counseling Information of Gallium nitrate in the drug label.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Gallium nitrate interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • Ganite®

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Gallium nitrate Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.


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