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HLA-A9 (A9) is a broad antigen HLA-A serotype that recognized the HLA-A23 and HLA-A24 serotypes[1]. A*2402 appears to have evolved from A*23 alleles by a process of gene conversion. The A23 is more common in Africa and regions proximal to Africa. A24 is at very high frequencies in Austronesia and certain indigenous peoples of the Arctic[2][3][4], North America[5], South America[6] and West Pacific Rim. While it is common over most of eurasia, it is found at low abundance in NW Europe. A24 appears to have been carried by the first colonizers of South Eastern Asia.

Subpages for A9 serotypes
Split antigen serotypes

of A9 HLA-A



  1. Fussell H, Thomas M, Street J, Darke C (1996). "HLA-A9 antibodies and epitopes". Tissue Antigens. 47 (4): 307–12. PMID 8773320.
  2. Lou H, Li HC, Kuwayama M; et al. (1998). "HLA class I and class II of the Nivkhi, an indigenous population carrying HTLV-I in Sakhalin, Far Eastern Russia". Tissue Antigens. 52 (5): 444–51. PMID 9864034.
  3. Nelson JL, Boyer G, Templin D; et al. (1992). "HLA antigens in Tlingit Indians with rheumatoid arthritis". Tissue Antigens. 40 (2): 57–63. PMID 1412417.
  4. Welinder L, Graugaard B, Madsen M (2000). "HLA antigen and gene frequencies in Eskimos of East Greenland". Eur. J. Immunogenet. 27 (2): 93–7. PMID 10792425.
  5. Leffell MS, Fallin MD, Hildebrand WH, Cavett JW, Iglehart BA, Zachary AA (2004). "HLA alleles and haplotypes among the Lakota Sioux: report of the ASHI minority workshops, part III". Hum. Immunol. 65 (1): 78–89. PMID 14700599.
  6. Fleischhauer K, Agostino A, Zino E; et al. (1999). "Molecular characterization of HLA class I in Colombians carrying HLA-A2: high allelic diversity and frequency of heterozygotes at the HLA-B locus". Tissue Antigens. 53 (6): 519–26. PMID 10395101.

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