Gallstone disease causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hadeel Maksoud M.D.[2]

Overview

Common causes of gallstone disease include increasing age, oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy, diabetes, and obesity. Life threatening causes include conditions causing hepatic and biliary cirrhosis.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life threatening causes of gallstones include:[1]

Most Common Causes

Most common causes of gallstones include:[2][3][4][5][6]

Less Common Causes

Less common causes of gallstones include:[2][3][4]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Williams syndrome
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Atazanavir, Ceftriaxone, Clofibrate, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Febuxostat, Hormonal contraception, Lanreotide, Leflunomide, Oxcarbazepine, Pasireotide, Pergolide, Pramipexole, Proton pump inhibitors, Rilpivirine, Somatostatin, Teduglutide, Tiagabine, Zonisamide
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Diabetes, Somatostatinoma
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Crohn's disease, Liver cirrhosis, Ulcerative colitis, Cystic fibrosis
Genetic Erythropoietic protoporphyria, Hemochromatosis, Hereditary spherocytosis, Williams Syndrome , Hemoglobin E disease, Hemolytic anemia, Sickle cell disease, Cystic fibrosis
Hematologic Hemoglobin E disease, Hemolytic anemia, Sickle cell disease, Hemochromatosis, Hereditary spherocytosis, Erythropoietic protoporphyria
Iatrogenic Long term intravenous nutrition, Weight loss surgery
Infectious Disease Clonorchiasis, Infection in the gallbladder
Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic Williams syndrome
Nutritional / Metabolic Hypercalcaemia, Low-fiber, High-cholesterol diets, Hemochromatosis, Williams syndrome, Erythropoietic protoporphyria, Dieting, Fasting
Obstetric/Gynecologic Pregnancy
Oncologic Somatostatinoma
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Ceftriaxone, Clofibrate, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Hormonal contraception, Lanreotide, Pasireotide, Proton pump inhibitors, Somatostatin
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Cystic fibrosis
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease
Sexual Cystic fibrosis
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Aging, Dieting, Fasting, Obesity, Rapid weight loss

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. Heaton KW, Braddon FE, Mountford RA, Hughes AO, Emmett PM (1991). "Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community". Gut. 32 (3): 316–20. PMC 1378843. PMID 2013429.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Valdivieso V, Covarrubias C, Siegel F, Cruz F (1993). "Pregnancy and cholelithiasis: pathogenesis and natural course of gallstones diagnosed in early puerperium". Hepatology. 17 (1): 1–4. PMID 8423030.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Alvaro D, Angelico M, Gandin C, Ginanni Corradini S, Capocaccia L (1990). "Physico-chemical factors predisposing to pigment gallstone formation in liver cirrhosis". J. Hepatol. 10 (2): 228–34. PMID 2332595.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Maurer KR, Everhart JE, Ezzati TM, Johannes RS, Knowler WC, Larson DL, Sanders R, Shawker TH, Roth HP (1989). "Prevalence of gallstone disease in Hispanic populations in the United States". Gastroenterology. 96 (2 Pt 1): 487–92. PMID 2642879.
  5. Liu B, Beral V, Balkwill A, Green J, Sweetland S, Reeves G (2008). "Gallbladder disease and use of transdermal versus oral hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: prospective cohort study". BMJ. 337: a386. PMC 2500203. PMID 18617493.
  6. De Santis A, Attili AF, Ginanni Corradini S, Scafato E, Cantagalli A, De Luca C, Pinto G, Lisi D, Capocaccia L (1997). "Gallstones and diabetes: a case-control study in a free-living population sample". Hepatology. 25 (4): 787–90. doi:10.1002/hep.510250401. PMID 9096577.

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