Gallstone disease risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hadeel Maksoud M.D.[2]


Common risk factors in the development of gallstone disease include age, sex, pregnancy, and oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy. Less common risk factors include rapid weight loss, prolonged total parenteral nutrition and hepatic and biliary cirrhosis.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors


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  2. Maurer KR, Everhart JE, Ezzati TM, Johannes RS, Knowler WC, Larson DL, Sanders R, Shawker TH, Roth HP (1989). "Prevalence of gallstone disease in Hispanic populations in the United States". Gastroenterology. 96 (2 Pt 1): 487–92. PMID 2642879.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sampliner RE, Bennett PH, Comess LJ, Rose FA, Burch TA (1970). "Gallbladder disease in pima indians. Demonstration of high prevalence and early onset by cholecystography". N. Engl. J. Med. 283 (25): 1358–64. doi:10.1056/NEJM197012172832502. PMID 5481754.
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  6. Maringhini A, Ciambra M, Baccelliere P, Raimondo M, Orlando A, Tinè F, Grasso R, Randazzo MA, Barresi L, Gullo D, Musico M, Pagliaro L (1993). "Biliary sludge and gallstones in pregnancy: incidence, risk factors, and natural history". Ann. Intern. Med. 119 (2): 116–20. PMID 8512160.
  7. Apstein MD, Dalecki-Chipperfield K (1987). "Spinal cord injury is a risk factor for gallstone disease". Gastroenterology. 92 (4): 966–8. PMID 3557002.
  8. Quigley EM, Marsh MN, Shaffer JL, Markin RS (1993). "Hepatobiliary complications of total parenteral nutrition". Gastroenterology. 104 (1): 286–301. PMID 8419252.
  9. Hussaini SH, Murphy GM, Kennedy C, Besser GM, Wass JA, Dowling RH (1994). "The role of bile composition and physical chemistry in the pathogenesis of octreotide-associated gallbladder stones". Gastroenterology. 107 (5): 1503–13. PMID 7926514.
  10. Caroli-Bosc FX, Le Gall P, Pugliese P, Delabre B, Caroli-Bosc C, Demarquay JF, Delmont JP, Rampal P, Montet JC (2001). "Role of fibrates and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in gallstone formation: epidemiological study in an unselected population". Dig. Dis. Sci. 46 (3): 540–4. PMID 11318529.
  11. Shiffman ML, Keith FB, Moore EW (1990). "Pathogenesis of ceftriaxone-associated biliary sludge. In vitro studies of calcium-ceftriaxone binding and solubility". Gastroenterology. 99 (6): 1772–8. PMID 2227290.

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