Epiglottitis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Alonso Alvarado, M.D. [2]; Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS [3] Prince Tano Djan, BSc, MBChB [4]

Overview

Prior to the introduction of Haemophilus influenza type b vaccine,[1] H. influenza was the most common culprit of epiglottitis. In recent literature, group A [beta]-hemolytic Streptococci is more commonly observed to be the cause. The disease used to be mostly found in pediatric age group of 3 to 5 years. However, recent trend favors adults as most commonly affected individuals.[2] Other pathogens such as escherichia coli, candida albicans, or kingella kingae may be encountered in immunocompromised hosts. Occasionally, noninfectious causes examples trauma from foreign objects inhalation and chemical burns have been found to cause epiglottitis.

Causes

Prior to the introduction of Haemophilus influenza type b vaccine,[3] H. influenza was the common culprit of epiglottitis. In recent literature, group A [beta]-hemolytic Streptococci is more commonly observed to be the cause. The disease used to be mostly found in pediatric age group of 3 to 5 years. However, recent trend favors adults as most commonly affected individuals.[2]

Life-Threatening Causes

Life-threatening conditions may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated. Epiglottitis is a life-threatening condition and must be treated as such irrespective of the causes.[4]

Common Causes

Common causes of epiglottitis include:[5][2]

Less common causes

Less common causes of epiglottitis include:[6][7]

  • Noninfectious causes examples include:
    • Trauma from foreign objects inhalation
    • Chemical burns
  • Viruses (including herpes simplex)
  • Fungi (Aspergillus spp and Candida albicans)

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical/Poisoning Chloramines in pool water, smoking illicit drugs
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat Vallecular cyst
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Gastroesophageal reflux
Genetic Hereditary angioedema
Hematologic Bone marrow transplantation
Iatrogenic Laryngeal mask airway, tonsillectomy complication
Infectious Disease Aeromonas hydrophilia, aspergillus, bacteroides melaninogenicus, beta-hemolytic streptococcus, candida albicans, citrobacter diversus, cytomegalovirus, eikenella corrodens, enterobacter cloacae, Epstein-Barr virus, escherichia coli, fusobacterium, haemophilus influenzae, haemophilus parainfluenzae, herpes simplex virus, histoplasma capsulatum, influenza B virus, kingella kingae, klebsiella pneumoniae, moraxella catarrhalis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, neisseria meningitidis, parainfluenza virus, pasteurella multocida, peptostreptococcus, propionibacterium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, serratia marcescens, staphylococcus aureus, stomatococcus mucilaginosus, streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus viridans, streptococcus milleri, varicella-zoster virus, vibrio vulnificus
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Laryngeal lymphangioma
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Foreign body ingestion
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Allergic reactions
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Foreign body ingestion, thermal injury
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Blind finger sweep, caustic ingestion, chloramines in pool water, hot water ingestion, Foreign body ingestion, smoking illicit drugs, thermal injury, vallecular cyst

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. Schlossberg, David (2015). Clinical infectious disease (Second ed.). p. 202. ISBN 9781107038912.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Lichtor JL, Roche Rodriguez M, Aaronson NL, Spock T, Goodman TR, Baum ED (2016). "Epiglottitis: It Hasn't Gone Away". Anesthesiology. 124 (6): 1404–7. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000001125. PMID 27031010.
  3. Schlossberg, David (2015). Clinical infectious disease (Second ed.). p. 202. ISBN 9781107038912.
  4. Richards AM (2016). "Pediatric Respiratory Emergencies". Emerg Med Clin North Am. 34 (1): 77–96. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2015.08.006. PMID 26614243.
  5. Trollfors B, Nylén O, Strangert K (1990). "Acute epiglottitis in children and adults in Sweden 1981-3". Arch Dis Child. 65 (5): 491–4. PMC 1792127. PMID 2357085.
  6. Charles R, Fadden M, Brook J (2013). "Acute epiglottitis". BMJ. 347: f5235. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5235. PMID 24052580.
  7. Shah KM, Carswell KN, Paradise Black NM (2016). "Prolonged Stridor and Epiglottitis With Concurrent Bacterial and Viral Etiologies". Clin Pediatr (Phila). 55 (1): 91–2. doi:10.1177/0009922815584221. PMID 25926662.

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