Epiglottitis epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Prince Tano Djan, BSc, MBChB [2]

Overview

In North America, approximatley 1.3 per 100,000 children are affected per year. In adults, the incidence is between 1 and 4 per 100,000 per year.[1][2][3][4] December is observed to be the month with highest number of cases whilst April is the least.[5] Males are more commonly affected with epiglottitis in USA than females. The male to female ratio is approximately 3:2.[5] The disease used to be mostly found in pediatric age group between 3 to 5 years. However, recent trend favors adults as most commonly affected individuals[6] with a mean age of 44.94 years. Recent data suggest an increase in those between 45 to 64 years old as well as those over 85 years whilest those below 18 years is decreasing.[5] In USA, epiglottitis is more prevalent in the caucasian race in urban communities accounting for over 2/3rd of all epiglottitis admissions.[5] Epiglottitis occurs more commonly in developing countries.[7]

Epidemiology and demographics

Incidence and prevalence

With the advent of Haemophilus influenza type b vaccine, the prevalence of epiglottitis has reduced by >90%.[8]

In North America, approximatley 1.3 per 100,000 children are affected per year. In adults, the incidence is between 1 and 4 per 100,000 per year.[1][2][3][4]

December is observed to be the month with highest number of cases whilst April is the least.[5]

Gender

Males are more commonly affected with epiglottitis in USA than females. The male to female ratio is approximately 3:2.[5]

Age

The disease used to be mostly found in pediatric age group between 3 to 5 years. However, recent trend favors adults as most commonly affected individuals[6] with a mean age of 44.94 years. Recent data suggest an increase in those between 45 to 64 years old as well as those over 85 years whilest those below 18 years is decreasing.[5]

Race

In USA, epiglottitis is more prevalent in the caucasian race in urban communities accounting for over 2/3rd of all epiglottitis admissions.[5]

Developed vs developing countries

Epiglottitis occurs more commonly in developing countries.[7]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Textbook of Adult Emergency Medicine (4 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014. p. 291. ISBN 9780702054389. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Pang C, Mohammed R (2017). "Acute epiglottitis in an older person". Age Ageing. doi:10.1093/ageing/afw241. PMID 28043981.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sherrard J (2001). "Adult epiglottitis: an under-recognized, life threatening condition". Br J Anaesth. 86 (3): 456, author reply 456-7. PMID 11573546.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mayo-Smith MF, Spinale JW, Donskey CJ, Yukawa M, Li RH, Schiffman FJ (1995). "Acute epiglottitis. An 18-year experience in Rhode Island". Chest. 108 (6): 1640–7. PMID 7497775.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Shah RK, Stocks C (2010). "Epiglottitis in the United States: national trends, variances, prognosis, and management". Laryngoscope. 120 (6): 1256–62. doi:10.1002/lary.20921. PMID 20513048.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Lichtor JL, Roche Rodriguez M, Aaronson NL, Spock T, Goodman TR, Baum ED (2016). "Epiglottitis: It Hasn't Gone Away". Anesthesiology. 124 (6): 1404–7. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000001125. PMID 27031010.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Boons, Geert-Jan (2009). Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines and Immunotherapies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. p. 1222. ISBN 9780470473276.
  8. Des Jardins, Terry (2015). Clinical Manifestations & Assessment of Respiratory Disease (7 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 529. ISBN 9780323358972.

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