Neonatal herpes simplex

(Redirected from Congenital herpes simplex)
Jump to: navigation, search

To view the congenital infections main page Click here

WikiDoc Resources for Neonatal herpes simplex

Articles

Most recent articles on Neonatal herpes simplex

Most cited articles on Neonatal herpes simplex

Review articles on Neonatal herpes simplex

Articles on Neonatal herpes simplex in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Neonatal herpes simplex

Images of Neonatal herpes simplex

Photos of Neonatal herpes simplex

Podcasts & MP3s on Neonatal herpes simplex

Videos on Neonatal herpes simplex

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Neonatal herpes simplex

Bandolier on Neonatal herpes simplex

TRIP on Neonatal herpes simplex

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Neonatal herpes simplex at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Neonatal herpes simplex

Clinical Trials on Neonatal herpes simplex at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Neonatal herpes simplex

NICE Guidance on Neonatal herpes simplex

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Neonatal herpes simplex

CDC on Neonatal herpes simplex

Books

Books on Neonatal herpes simplex

News

Neonatal herpes simplex in the news

Be alerted to news on Neonatal herpes simplex

News trends on Neonatal herpes simplex

Commentary

Blogs on Neonatal herpes simplex

Definitions

Definitions of Neonatal herpes simplex

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Neonatal herpes simplex

Discussion groups on Neonatal herpes simplex

Patient Handouts on Neonatal herpes simplex

Directions to Hospitals Treating Neonatal herpes simplex

Risk calculators and risk factors for Neonatal herpes simplex

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Neonatal herpes simplex

Causes & Risk Factors for Neonatal herpes simplex

Diagnostic studies for Neonatal herpes simplex

Treatment of Neonatal herpes simplex

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Neonatal herpes simplex

International

Neonatal herpes simplex en Espanol

Neonatal herpes simplex en Francais

Business

Neonatal herpes simplex in the Marketplace

Patents on Neonatal herpes simplex

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Neonatal herpes simplex

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aravind Kuchkuntla, M.B.B.S[2]

Synonyms and Keywords: SEM, Neonatal herpes

Overview

Neonatal herpes simplex infection is caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2. The transmission of infection is by vertical transmission in utero or by direct contact from the genital tract. The disease presentation varies with majority of the cases limiting to only skin, eye and mouth (SEM), but it can also involve the CNS and other organ systems. Documentation of maternal history of genital herpes and classification of maternal infection type based on serology has a significant role in the management of neonatal herpes. The risk of transmission is high in patients with primary disease and low in patients with recurrent disease. A high suspicion of neonatal herpes infection should be present in all infants born to mothers with genital lesions in the third trimester. Surface cultures and CSF analysis should be done to establish the infection and empiric IV acyclovir must be initiated for better outcomes. The duration of the treatment is based on the extent of involvement of the disease, it should be followed by a 6 month duration of suppressive acyclovir therapy.

Historical Perspective

  • In 1935, the first case resembling neonatal HSV, was described with the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in a premature infant in the liver and the adrenals.[1]

Classification

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Classification

Neonatal herpes simplex is classified based on the organ system involvement in the neonate into the following:[2]

  • Disseminated herpes simplex: Involving visceral organs such as lung, liver, adrenal glands, skin, eye, and/or brain.
  • Central nervous system disease: Involvement of the CNS with or without skin lesions.
  • SEM Disease: Disease limited to the involvement of skin, eye and mouth.

Maternal Genital Herpes Classification

Maternal genital herpes is classified based on HSV type and maternal serology. It is essential to distinguish the type of maternal infection, as the type of infection influences the management approach.

  • Primary Infection: It when a women has exposure to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 for the first time. The serology will be negative for antibodies against both the types.[3]
  • Recurrent Infection: It is when a women has clinical lesions demonstrating the same type of HSV to which the serology is positive.[4]
  • Non-primary first episode: It is the first clinically recognized episode and serology demonstrates either HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibodies indicating a prior exposure.

Classification of maternal infection PCR / Culture from the genital lesion Maternal HSV-1/ HSV-2 Antibody status
First episode primary infection Positive for either virus Negative for both
Recurrent infection Positive for HSV-1 Positive for HSV-1
Positive for HSV-2 Positive for HSV-2
First episode Non-primary infection (Patient is immune to one type of HSV) Positive for HSV-1 Positive for HSV-2
Positive for HSV-2 Positive for HSV-1

Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis

Timing of infection

Factors that influence transmission of HSV from the mother to the neonate

The factors that influence the transmission of infection include:[11]

Microscopic Pathology

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

The cause for neonatal herpes simplex is the presence of active lesions at the time of delivery, therefore all the risk factors which predispose patients to aquire genital herpes are risk factors for developing neonatal disease also. The risk factors include: [16][17]

Screening

Causes

The causative pathogen for neonatal herpes simplex is herpes simplex virus. The different types involved in the disease are as follows:

  • 85% of cases are caused by HSV-1
  • 15% of cases are caused by HSV-2

Differentiating Neonatal Herpes Simplex From Other Diseases

The most important congenital infections, which can be transmitted vertically from mother to fetus are the TORCH infections. These infections have overlapping features and hence, must be differentiated from neonatal herpes simplex:[19][20]

Congenital Infection Cardiac Findings Skin Findings Ocular Findings Hepatosplenomegaly Hydrocephalus Microcephaly Intracranial Calcifications Hearing deficits
Congenital Varicella Syndrome -
  • Cicatrical Skin Lesions
  • Skin Edema
  • Micropthalmus
  • Cataracts
Toxoplasmosis Diffuse intracranial calcifications
Congenital Syphils
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Periventricular calcifications
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
Parvovirus B19

Natural History, Prognosis and Complications

Natural History

Neonatal herpes infection is a rapidly progressive disease resulting in CNS disease and disseminated disease. Clinical presentation in the initially include vesicular skin rash, watering and redness of the eyes and mouth ulcers. Early diagnosis and treatment with acyclovir prevents the progression of disease. If left untreated the infection can progress to involve the CNS and other organ systems. Affected infants present with irritability, feeding difficulties, respiratory distress and features of DIC. Disseminated disease has poor prognosis and results in early death of the infant. Infants with CNS disease can have residual neurological deficits and developmental delay. [21]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis of SEM is good and majority of the infants have good prognosis with acyclovir suppressive therapy.
  • The use of acyclovir has reduced mortality in CNS and disseminated disease but the overall prognosis is poor.[22]

Complications

The complications of neonatal herpes infection include: [23]

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

The onset of symptoms is dependent on the extent of involvement of the disease. Skin, eye, mouth disease is the most common presentation and is seen in 50% of patients. Delay in the diagnosis and initiation of treatment results in rapid progression of disease to involve the CNS and other organ systems.[24]

Skin, Eye, Mouth Disease

  • The average age of presentation is 10 to 12days of life.
  • The presenting symptoms include: redness and watering of the eye, skin rash and mouth ulcers. [25]

CNS Disease

  • The average age of presentation is around 16 to 20days of life.
  • The symptoms include : Irritability, feeding difficulties, weakness of the limbs, seizures and enlarging head.
  • Majority of the patients with CNS disease have features of SEM.

Disseminated Disease

  • The average age of presentation is 10 to 12 days of life.
  • The infant presents with symptoms such as difficulty breathing, yellowish skin, distended abdomen, seizures, reduced urine output, bleeding, skin rash.

Physical Examination

Physical examination findings in neonatal herpes simplex include : [26]

Clinical Manifestations in neonatal herpes simplex
Skin
  • Vesicular lesions with an erythematous base
  • Scarring
  • Aplasia Cutis
Eye
Mouth
CNS Disease
Disseminated Disease

Laboratory Findings

Diagnosis of maternal genital herpes

  • Diagnosis of maternal herpes simplex can be done by PCR assay for HSV DNA and culture for HSV.[18]
  • PCR assay is the commonly used method for diagnosis as it takes short time for obtaining results. The major limitation of using PCR assay is its availability in remote medical facilities.[18][27]
  • Culture for HSV takes 4 to 5 days for results and is dependent on the stage of infection, higher viral load is present in the prodromal and vesicular stage than during the crusting stage affecting the results.[18]
  • Serological tests distinguish antibodies produced against HSV-1 and HSV-2, therefore help in determining the type of HSV causing the infection.[18]

Diagnosis in the Neonate

  • Neonates with suspicion for herpes simplex infection must be evaluated for the presence of infection before initiation of empiric treatment with acyclovir. The gold standard for diagnosis is culture for HSV. PCR of CSF should be done in neonates presenting with CNS disease.[28]
  • The specimens for surface cultures should be collected from multiple areas which include mouth, nasopharynx, conjunctivae, and anus. Skin vesicles should also be sampled for culture and PCR assay.[29]
  • Sample collection is done at 24 hours of life to eliminate a possible maternal contamination which can result in false positive results. Positive surface cultures indicate viral replication.[30]
  • Other specimens to be collected include CSF for culture and PCR assay, whole blood for PCR assay and liver function tests.[31]
  • Whole blood PCR is useful in identifying viremia, but the extent of the disease and response to therapy cannot be related to the result of blood PCR as viremia is present in SEM, disseminated and CNS HSV infections.[32]
  • Based on the laboratory findings, HSV manifestation can be differentiated into two types:
Stage of Neonate infection Specific Findings
HSV Infection
HSV Disease
  • Symptomatic infant ( Presence of SEM, disseminated or CNS HSV features)
  • Positive surface culture
  • Positive HSV blood PCR
  • Positive CSF HSV
  • Elevated alanine transaminase

Treatment

Approach to neonate with suspected HSV infection

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Suspicion of HSV infection in asymptomatic neonate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Is the present genital herpes lesion the first episode or not
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
YES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Positive past history for similar lesions before pregnancy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Signifies the infection can be primary infection, first episode Non-primary infection or a recurrent infection
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Signifies the infection is most likely due to reactivation of the virus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
• Perform maternal serology to differentiate the stages of maternal infection
AND
At 24hours of life perform :
HSV surface cultures
CSF analysis and CSF HSV PCR
HSV Blood PCR
• Measure serum ALT
• Initiate IV Acyclovir 60mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
At 24 hours of life perform :
• Surface cultures
HSV Blood PCR
• Donot start Acyclovir if the baby is asymptomatic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Primary infection or First Episode Non-primary infection
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recurrent infection
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reactivation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
HSV Disease
 
 
 
HSV Infection
 
HSV Infection
 
 
 
 
• Negative neonate HSV blood PCR
• Negative surface culture
 
• Negative blood HSV PCR
• Negative surface culture
 
 
 
• Positive HSV blood PCR
• Positive surface culture
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
• Continue IV Acyclovir based on the extent of the disease (14 to 21 days)
 
 
 
 
 
Continue IV Acyclovir for 10days to prevent progression
 
 
 
 
 
 
• Stop Acyclovir
• Educate about signs and symptoms of HSV
• Discharge and re-evaluate at 6 weeks
 
• Educate about signs and symptoms of HSV
• Discharge and re-evaluate at 6 weeks
 
 
 
Perform CSF HSV PCR and Alanine Transaminase level
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
• Negative CSF PCR
• Start IV Acyclovir for 10days
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Positive CSF PCR and Elevated ALT
• Initiate IV Acyclovir for 14 to 21days

Algorithm adopted from Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions[29]

Classification of maternal infection PCR / Culture from the genital lesion Maternal HSV-1/ HSV-2 Antibody status
First episode primary infection Positive for either virus Negative for both
Recurrent infection Positive for HSV-1 Positive for HSV-1
Positive for HSV-2 Positive for HSV-2
First episode Non-primary infection Positive for HSV-1 Positive for HSV-2
Positive for HSV-2 Positive for HSV-1

Medical Therapy

Acyclovir is the only therapeutic agent for the treatment for neonatal HSV and the treatment duration is based on the severity of infection. The current recommendations are as follows: [29]

  • All infants with skin lesions should be admitted and should be kept in isolation with contact precautions.
  • Breast feeding is contraindicated when herpetic lesions are present on the breast.
  • Start empiric IV acyclovir therapy in all symptomatic infants and infants with suspicion of neonatal HSV or confirmed HSV infection. IV Acyclovir is the recommended regimen and is given at a dose of 20mg/kg every 8 hours.[33]
  • The duration of acyclovir therapy is dependent on the severity of the infection, it is as follows: [29]
    • Patients with HSV infection treatment should be continued for 10 days.
    • Patients with skin, eye, mouth involvement(SEM) duration of treatment is 14 days.
    • Patients with CNS and disseminated disease duration of treatment is 21 days.
  • In patients with a initial positive CSF HSV PCR, repeat lumbar puncture should be performed at the end of therapy to assess the response to therapy. If the CSF PCR is positive at the end of therapy, acyclovir treatment should be extended for a duration of 1week. The results of the repeat lumbar puncture should be negative to stop the therapy.
  • All patients should receive a 6 month duration acyclovir suppressive therapy 300mg/m²/dose, 3 times a day after IV acyclovir is stopped.
  • Absolute neutrophil count should be monitored at second and fourth week after initiation of suppressive therapy initially and then once monthly.[34]

Surgical Therapy

There are no surgical measures for the management of neonatal herpes simplex.

Prevention

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

References

  1. Hass GM (1935). "Hepato-Adrenal Necrosis with Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies: Report of a Case". Am J Pathol. 11 (1): 127–142.5. PMC 1910753. PMID 19970188.
  2. Whitley R, Arvin A, Prober C, Corey L, Burchett S, Plotkin S, Starr S, Jacobs R, Powell D, Nahmias A (1991). "Predictors of morbidity and mortality in neonates with herpes simplex virus infections. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (7): 450–4. doi:10.1056/NEJM199102143240704. PMID 1988830.
  3. Brown ZA, Vontver LA, Benedetti J, Critchlow CW, Sells CJ, Berry S, Corey L (1987). "Effects on infants of a first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy". N. Engl. J. Med. 317 (20): 1246–51. doi:10.1056/NEJM198711123172002. PMID 2823137.
  4. Vontver LA, Hickok DE, Brown Z, Reid L, Corey L (1982). "Recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy: infant outcome and frequency of asymptomatic recurrences". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 143 (1): 75–84. PMID 7081316.
  5. Wald, Anna; Zeh, Judith; Selke, Stacy; Ashley, Rhoda L.; Corey, Lawrence (1995). "Virologic Characteristics of Subclinical and Symptomatic Genital Herpes Infections". New England Journal of Medicine. 333 (12): 770–775. doi:10.1056/NEJM199509213331205. ISSN 0028-4793.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Brown ZA, Benedetti J, Ashley R, Burchett S, Selke S, Berry S, Vontver LA, Corey L (1991). "Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in relation to asymptomatic maternal infection at the time of labor". N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (18): 1247–52. doi:10.1056/NEJM199105023241804. PMID 1849612.
  7. Brown, ZaneA.; Selke, Stacy; Zeh, Judy; Kopelman, Jerome; Maslow, Arthur; Ashley, Rhoda L.; Watts, D. Heather; Berry, Sylvia; Herd, Millie; Corey, Lawrence (1997). "The Acquisition of Herpes Simplex Virus during Pregnancy". New England Journal ofMedicine. 337 (8): 509–516. doi:10.1056/NEJM199708213370801. ISSN 0028-4793.
  8. Pinninti SG, Kimberlin DW (2013). "Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections". Am J Perinatol. 30 (2): 113–9. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1332802. PMID 23303485.
  9. Brown ZA, Wald A, Morrow RA, Selke S, Zeh J, Corey L (2003). "Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant". JAMA. 289 (2): 203–9. PMID 12517231.
  10. Baldwin S, Whitley RJ (1989). "Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection". Teratology. 39 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1002/tera.1420390102. PMID 2655150.
  11. Kimberlin DW, Baley J (2013). "Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions". Pediatrics. 131 (2): e635–46. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3216. PMC 3557411. PMID 23359576.
  12. Brown, Zane A. (2003). "Effect of Serologic Status and Cesarean Delivery on Transmission Rates of Herpes Simplex Virus From Mother to Infant". JAMA. 289 (2): 203. doi:10.1001/jama.289.2.203. ISSN 0098-7484.
  13. Brown ZA, Gardella C, Wald A, Morrow RA, Corey L (2005). "Genital herpes complicating pregnancy". Obstet Gynecol. 106 (4): 845–56. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000180779.35572.3a. PMID 16199646.
  14. Kaye EM, Dooling EC (1981). "Neonatal herpes simplex meningoencephalitis associated with fetal monitor scalp electrodes". Neurology. 31 (8): 1045–7. PMID 7196519.
  15. Looker KJ, Magaret AS, May MT, Turner KM, Vickerman P, Newman LM; et al. (2017). "First estimates of the global and regional incidence of neonatal herpes infection". Lancet Glob Health. 5 (3): e300–e309. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30362-X. PMID 28153513.
  16. Pinninti, Swetha G.; Kimberlin, David W. (2014). "Preventing Herpes Simplex Virus in the Newborn". Clinics in Perinatology. 41 (4): 945–955. doi:10.1016/j.clp.2014.08.012. ISSN 0095-5108.
  17. James, Scott H.; Kimberlin, David W. (2015). "Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 29 (3): 391–400. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2015.05.001. ISSN 0891-5520.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 "ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. No. 82 June 2007. Management of herpes in pregnancy". Obstet Gynecol. 109 (6): 1489–98. 2007. PMID 17569194.
  19. Neu N, Duchon J, Zachariah P (2015). "TORCH infections". Clin Perinatol. 42 (1): 77–103, viii. doi:10.1016/j.clp.2014.11.001. PMID 25677998.
  20. Ajij M, Nangia S, Dubey BS (2014). "Congenital rubella syndrome with blueberry muffin lesions and extensive metaphysitis". J Clin Diagn Res. 8 (12): PD03–4. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10271.5293. PMC 4316306. PMID 25654000.
  21. Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, Powell DA, Frenkel LM, Gruber WC, Rathore M, Bradley JS, Diaz PS, Kumar M, Arvin AM, Gutierrez K, Shelton M, Weiner LB, Sleasman JW, de Sierra TM, Soong SJ, Kiell J, Lakeman FD, Whitley RJ (2001). "Natural history of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in the acyclovir era". Pediatrics. 108 (2): 223–9. PMID 11483781.
  22. Whitley RJ, Corey L, Arvin A, Lakeman FD, Sumaya CV, Wright PF, Dunkle LM, Steele RW, Soong SJ, Nahmias AJ (1988). "Changing presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in neonates". J. Infect. Dis. 158 (1): 109–16. PMID 3392410.
  23. Brown ZA, Selke S, Zeh J, Kopelman J, Maslow A, Ashley RL, Watts DH, Berry S, Herd M, Corey L (1997). "The acquisition of herpes simplex virus during pregnancy". N. Engl. J. Med. 337 (8): 509–15. doi:10.1056/NEJM199708213370801. PMID 9262493.
  24. Kimberlin DW (2004). "Neonatal herpes simplex infection". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17 (1): 1–13. PMC 321459. PMID 14726453.
  25. Wu, Jia Hao; Parsons, Sarah (2017). "Fatal disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in neonates in a forensic setting". Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology. 13 (1): 99–101. doi:10.1007/s12024-016-9834-5. ISSN 1547-769X.
  26. Karesh JW, Kapur S, MacDonald M (1983). "Herpes simplex virus and congenital malformations". South. Med. J. 76 (12): 1561–3. PMID 6316563.
  27. Atkins JT (1999). "HSV PCR for CNS infections: pearls and pitfalls". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18 (9): 823–4. PMID 10493345.
  28. Kimberlin DW, Lakeman FD, Arvin AM, Prober CG, Corey L, Powell DA, Burchett SK, Jacobs RF, Starr SE, Whitley RJ (1996). "Application of the polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus disease. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group". J. Infect. Dis. 174 (6): 1162–7. PMID 8940204.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 Kimberlin, D. W.; Baley, J. (2013). "Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions". PEDIATRICS. 131 (2): e635–e646. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3216. ISSN 0031-4005.
  30. Prober CG, Hensleigh PA, Boucher FD, Yasukawa LL, Au DS, Arvin AM (1988). "Use of routine viral cultures at delivery to identify neonates exposed to herpes simplex virus". N. Engl. J. Med. 318 (14): 887–91. doi:10.1056/NEJM198804073181404. PMID 2832756.
  31. Kimura H, Futamura M, Kito H, Ando T, Goto M, Kuzushima K, Shibata M, Morishima T (1991). "Detection of viral DNA in neonatal herpes simplex virus infections: frequent and prolonged presence in serum and cerebrospinal fluid". J. Infect. Dis. 164 (2): 289–93. PMID 1649876.
  32. Diamond C, Mohan K, Hobson A, Frenkel L, Corey L (1999). "Viremia in neonatal herpes simplex virus infections". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18 (6): 487–9. PMID 10391175.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 "Genital HSV Infections - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines".
  34. Ericson, Jessica E.; Gostelow, Martyn; Autmizguine, Julie; Hornik, Christoph P.; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian (2016). "Safety of High-Dose Acyclovir in Infants with Suspected and Confirmed Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: 1. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000001451. ISSN 0891-3668.
  35. Wald A, Langenberg AG, Link K, Izu AE, Ashley R, Warren T, Tyring S, Douglas JM, Corey L (2001). "Effect of condoms on reducing the transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 from men to women". JAMA. 285 (24): 3100–6. PMID 11427138.
  36. Sheffield JS, Hollier LM, Hill JB, Stuart GS, Wendel GD (2003). "Acyclovir prophylaxis to prevent herpes simplex virus recurrence at delivery: a systematic review". Obstet Gynecol. 102 (6): 1396–403. PMID 14662233.
  37. Watts DH, Brown ZA, Money D, Selke S, Huang ML, Sacks SL; et al. (2003). "A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acyclovir in late pregnancy for the reduction of herpes simplex virus shedding and cesarean delivery". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 188 (3): 836–43. PMID 12634667.
  38. Scott LL, Hollier LM, McIntire D, Sanchez PJ, Jackson GL, Wendel GD (2002). "Acyclovir suppression to prevent recurrent genital herpes at delivery". Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 10 (2): 71–7. doi:10.1155/S1064744902000054. PMC 1784606. PMID 12530483.

Linked-in.jpg