Adenosine diphosphate

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Adenosine diphosphate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
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Properties
C10H15N5O10P2
Molar mass 427.201
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Overview

Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleotide adenine. ADP consists of the pyrophosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine.

ADP is the product of ATP dephosphorylation by ATPases. ADP is converted back to ATP by ATP synthases. ATP is an important energy transfer molecule in cells.

ADP is stored in dense bodies inside blood platelets and is released upon platelet activation. ADP interacts with a family of ADP receptors found on platelets (P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1), leading to further platelet activation.[1] ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine receptors. The anti-platelet drug Plavix (clopidogrel) inhibits the P2Y12 receptor.

ADP is the end-product that results when ATP loses one of its phosphate groups located at the end of the molecule.[2] The conversion of these two molecules plays a critical role in supplying energy for many processes of life.[3] The deletion of one of ATP’s phosphorous bonds generates about the same amount of energy derived from human digestion of a single peanut, approximately 7.3 kilocalories per Mole of ATP.[4] ADP can be converted, or powered back to ATP through the process of releasing the chemical energy available in food; in humans this is constantly performed via aerobic respiration in the mitochondria.[5] Plants use photosynthetic pathways to convert and store the energy from sunlight, via conversion of ADP to ATP.[6] Animals use the energy released in the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to convert ADP to ATP, which can then be used to fuel necessary growth and cell maintenance.[7]

See also

References

  1. Murugappa S, Kunapuli SP, "The role of ADP receptors in platelet function", Front Biosci., 2006, 11:1977-86
  2. Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 December 7]. Available from: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/atp.html
  3. Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 December 7]. Available from: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/atp.html
  4. Farabee, M.J. The Nature of ATP. ATP and Biological Energy [serial on the Internet]. 2002 [cited 2007 December 7]. Available from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookATP.html
  5. Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 December 7]. Available from: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/atp.html
  6. Farabee, M.J. The Nature of ATP. ATP and Biological Energy [serial on the Internet]. 2002 [cited 2007 December 7]. Available from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookATP.html
  7. Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 December 7]. Available from: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/atp.html


v  d  e
Major families of biochemicals
Peptides | Amino acids | Nucleic acids | Carbohydrates | Nucleotide sugars | Lipids | Terpenes | Carotenoids | Tetrapyrroles | Enzyme cofactors | Steroids | Flavonoids | Alkaloids | Polyketides | Glycosides
Analogues of nucleic acids:Types of Nucleic AcidsAnalogues of nucleic acids:
Nucleobases: Purine (Adenine, Guanine) | Pyrimidine (Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine)
Nucleosides: Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine | Guanosine/Deoxyguanosine | Uridine | Thymidine | Cytidine/Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: monophosphates (AMP, GMP, UMP, CMP) | diphosphates (ADP, GDP, UDP, CDP) | triphosphates (ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP) | cyclic (cAMP, cGMP, cADPR)
Deoxynucleotides: monophosphates (dAMP, dGMP, TMP, dCMP) | diphosphates (dADP, dGDP, TDP, dCDP) | triphosphates (dATP, dGTP, TTP, dCTP)
Ribonucleic acids: RNA | mRNA | tRNA | rRNA | gRNA | miRNA | ncRNA | piRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | snoRNA
Deoxyribonucleic acids: DNA | mtDNA | cDNA
Nucleic acid analogues: GNA | LNA | PNA | TNA | morpholino
Cloning vectors: plasmid | cosmid | fosmid | phagemid | BAC | YAC | HAC



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