Ureaplasma urealyticum risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fatimo Biobaku M.B.B.S [2]


Risk factors that have been identified for Ureaplasma colonization/infection include factors such as heavy urogenital colonization in adults, multiple sexual partners, immunosuppression, and prematurity in neonates.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Risk factors

Risk factors for Ureaplasma infection in infants include the following:[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Neonatal factors

Maternal factors

Risk factors for Ureaplasma colonization/infection in adult men and women:[7][8][9][10][11][12]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Waites KB, Crouse DT, Cassell GH (1993). "Systemic neonatal infection due to Ureaplasma urealyticum". Clin Infect Dis. 17 Suppl 1: S131–5. PMID 8399903.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Resch B, Gutmann C, Reiterer F, Luxner J, Urlesberger B (2016). "Neonatal Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization increases pulmonary and cerebral morbidity despite treatment with macrolide antibiotics". Infection. 44 (3): 323–7. doi:10.1007/s15010-015-0858-7. PMID 26518581.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Viscardi RM, Hashmi N, Gross GW, Sun CC, Rodriguez A, Fairchild KD (2008). "Incidence of invasive ureaplasma in VLBW infants: relationship to severe intraventricular hemorrhage". J Perinatol. 28 (11): 759–65. doi:10.1038/jp.2008.98. PMC 5334544. PMID 18596706.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Harada K, Tanaka H, Komori S, Tsuji Y, Nagata K, Tsutsui H; et al. (2008). "Vaginal infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum accounts for preterm delivery via induction of inflammatory responses". Microbiol Immunol. 52 (6): 297–304. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2008.00039.x. PMID 18577163.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kikhney J, von Schöning D, Steding I, Schulze J, Petrich A, Hiergeist A; et al. (2017). "Is Ureaplasma spp. the leading causative agent of acute chorioamnionitis in women with preterm birth?". Clin Microbiol Infect. 23 (2): 119.e1–119.e7. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2016.10.010. PMID 27756710.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Koucký M, Malíčková K, Cindrová-Davies T, Smíšek J, Vráblíková H, Černý A; et al. (2016). "Prolonged progesterone administration is associated with less frequent cervicovaginal colonization by Ureaplasma urealyticum during pregnancy - Results of a pilot study". J Reprod Immunol. 116: 35–41. doi:10.1016/j.jri.2016.04.285. PMID 27172838.
  7. Marovt M, Keše D, Kotar T, Kmet N, Miljković J, Šoba B; et al. (2015). "Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected with the same frequency among women with and without symptoms of urogenital tract infection". Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 34 (6): 1237–45. doi:10.1007/s10096-015-2351-8. PMID 25717022.
  8. Povlsen K, Bjørnelius E, Lidbrink P, Lind I (2002). "Relationship of Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 2 to nongonococcal urethritis". Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 21 (2): 97–101. PMID 11939406.
  9. Maeda S, Deguchi T, Ishiko H, Matsumoto T, Naito S, Kumon H; et al. (2004). "Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum (biovar 1) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis using polymerase chain reaction-microtiter plate hybridization". Int J Urol. 11 (9): 750–4. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2004.00887.x. PMID 15379939.
  10. Couldwell DL, Gidding HF, Freedman EV, McKechnie ML, Biggs K, Sintchenko V; et al. (2010). "Ureaplasma urealyticum is significantly associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual Sydney men". Int J STD AIDS. 21 (5): 337–41. doi:10.1258/ijsa.2009.009499. PMID 20498103.
  11. Benedetto C, Tibaldi C, Marozio L, Marini S, Masuelli G, Pelissetto S; et al. (2004). "Cervicovaginal infections during pregnancy: epidemiological and microbiological aspects". J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 16 Suppl 2: 9–12. doi:10.1080/14767050410001727107. PMID 15590426.
  12. George MD, Cardenas AM, Birnbaum BK, Gluckman SJ (2015). "Ureaplasma septic arthritis in an immunosuppressed patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis". J Clin Rheumatol. 21 (4): 221–4. doi:10.1097/RHU.0000000000000248. PMID 26010188.

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