Ureaplasma urealyticum epidemiology and demographics
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Genital tract colonization by Ureaplasma occur in over 40% of healthy women. Ureaplasma species are the most common pathogen identified in VLBW infants. Respiratory tract colonization by Ureaplasma is more common in preterm VLBW infants compared to term infants. 20-45% of VLBW infants have Ureaplasma colonization of the respiratory tract.
Epidemiology and Demographics
Ureaplasma species are commensal organisms in the female genital tract, colonizing 40-80% of the genital tract of healthy women.  The prevalence of vaginal colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women is 29-42%. Ureaplasma species are the most common pathogen identified in VLBW infants. Ureaplasma colonization of the respiratory tract is more common in preterm VLBW infants compared to term infants. 20-45% of VLBW infants have Ureaplasma colonization of the respiratory tract. The incidence of Ureaplasma species in cord blood cultures of VLBW neonates was found to be 17%. Ureaplasma species have also been shown to invade the bloodstream and cross the blood–brain barrier in 23% of VLBW infants in another study. The prevalence of Ureaplasma positive CSF culture from preterm infants investigated for suspected meningitis was 8%.
Colonization by Ureaplasma species can be seen in both the pediatric and adult population. Genital tract of adult men and women are the main reservoirs of Ureaplasma species. However, symptomatic Ureaplasma infection is seen more often in preterm neonates. Colonization of neonates by U. urealyticum increases with decreasing gestational age and birth weight.
There is no known gender predilection for Ureaplasma infection.
A study conducted in the United States in the 1980's in 13,747 women of low socioeconomic status from four different ethnic groups revealed that women of black ethnicity were more likely to have genital tract colonization with potentially pathogenic organisms such as U. urealyticum  Another study was carried out by Doh et al. in healthy pregnant women from different ethnic groups, and it revealed no racial predilection for Ureaplasma colonization.
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