Ureaplasma urealyticum pathophysiology

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ureaplasma urealyticum Microchapters



Historical Perspective




Differentiating Ureaplasma urealyticum from other Bacteria

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Chest X Ray


Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Ureaplasma urealyticum pathophysiology On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Ureaplasma urealyticum pathophysiology

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Ureaplasma urealyticum pathophysiology

CDC on Ureaplasma urealyticum pathophysiology

Ureaplasma urealyticum pathophysiology in the news

Blogs on Ureaplasma urealyticum pathophysiology

Directions to Hospitals Treating Rhinitis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Ureaplasma urealyticum pathophysiology

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fatimo Biobaku M.B.B.S [2]


Ureaplasma species have been associated with several conditions such as preterm delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal infection, and urogenital infection in adults.[1][2] Stimulation of host inflammatory responses by Ureaplasma has been implicated in most of these conditions.[1][2][3]



The role of Ureaplasma infection in preterm delivery

Neonatal infection and the role of Ureaplasma species

  • Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum are the most common organisms isolated from infected amniotic fluid and placenta, suggesting the potential role of Ureaplasma species in the development of disseminated neonatal infection.[9][5][6][7]
  • The infection is commonly acquired via vertical transmission by three main mechanisms:[6]
  1. Maternal placental infection with umbilical vessels involvement result in the hematogenous dissemination of infection in the neonate.
  2. Passage of the organism into the fetal lung via an infected amniotic fluid.
  3. Perinatal acquisition of infection following passage of the baby through an infected maternal birth canal.
  • Pneumonitis, bacteremia, or meningitis can occur following stimulation of host inflammatory responses by the organism.[7][6]
  • Preterm neonates are most commonly affected, and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have been noted to have invasive Ureaplasma infection.[7] Preterm infants weighing <5.5 pounds are nearly four times more likely to develop systemic infection compared to full term infants weighing above 5.5 pounds.
  • It has been suggested that severe Ureaplasma infection in VLBW infants may contribute to the development of severe intraventricular hemorrhage.[7]
  • There may also be an association between necrotising enterocolitis and Ureaplasma colonization in preterm neonates.[5]

Colonization by Ureaplasma species and its association with urogenital infections in adults

  • There is no significant association between Ureaplasma colonization of the lower genital tract and symptomatic urogenital infection in females.[10]
  • The detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum in fluid samples obtained from the pouch of Douglas in 60% of women with lower urogenital tract Ureaplasma colonization confirms the fact that asymptomatic infection of the upper genital tract can occur in women following direct ascent of these organisms from the cervix and vagina to the sterile upper reproductive tract.[11]
  • Ureaplasma colonization of the genital tract is common following puberty and it is directly related to sexual activity.[2]
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum has been detected in men with nongonococcal urethritis, and also in those without nongonococcal urethritis.[12] Some studies conducted in men show there is an association between urogenital colonization by Ureaplasma urealyticum and nongonococcal urethritis.[12][13][14] However, the pathogenic role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in nongonococcal urethritis is still not clear.[15][3][16]
  • Men with higher bacterial load of U. urealyticum (≥5 x 103) in first-void urine were found to have higher leukocyte counts (in their first-void urine sample) and symptomatic urethritis, suggesting there could be a positive correlation between the bacteria load of U. urealyticum and the development of inflammatory responses to the organism.[3]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Harada K, Tanaka H, Komori S, Tsuji Y, Nagata K, Tsutsui H; et al. (2008). "Vaginal infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum accounts for preterm delivery via induction of inflammatory responses". Microbiol Immunol. 52 (6): 297–304. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2008.00039.x. PMID 18577163   Check |pmid= value (help).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Waites KB, Schelonka RL, Xiao L, Grigsby PL, Novy MJ (2009). "Congenital and opportunistic infections: Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis". Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 14 (4): 190–9. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2008.11.009. PMID 19109084.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Shimada Y, Ito S, Mizutani K, Sugawara T, Seike K, Tsuchiya T; et al. (2014). "Bacterial loads of Ureaplasma urealyticum contribute to development of urethritis in men". Int J STD AIDS. 25 (4): 294–8. doi:10.1177/0956462413504556. PMID 24047884.
  4. Resch B, Gutmann C, Reiterer F, Luxner J, Urlesberger B (2016). "Neonatal Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization increases pulmonary and cerebral morbidity despite treatment with macrolide antibiotics". Infection. 44 (3): 323–7. doi:10.1007/s15010-015-0858-7. PMID 26518581.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Okogbule-Wonodi AC, Gross GW, Sun CC, Agthe AG, Xiao L, Waites KB; et al. (2011). "Necrotizing enterocolitis is associated with ureaplasma colonization in preterm infants". Pediatr Res. 69 (5 Pt 1): 442–7. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182111827. PMC 3968774. PMID 21258263.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Waites KB, Crouse DT, Cassell GH (1993). "Systemic neonatal infection due to Ureaplasma urealyticum". Clin Infect Dis. 17 Suppl 1: S131–5. PMID 8399903.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Viscardi RM, Hashmi N, Gross GW, Sun CC, Rodriguez A, Fairchild KD (2008). "Incidence of invasive ureaplasma in VLBW infants: relationship to severe intraventricular hemorrhage". J Perinatol. 28 (11): 759–65. doi:10.1038/jp.2008.98. PMC 5334544. PMID 18596706.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Harada K, Tanaka H, Komori S, Tsuji Y, Nagata K, Tsutsui H; et al. (2008). "Vaginal infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum accounts for preterm delivery via induction of inflammatory responses". Microbiol Immunol. 52 (6): 297–304. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2008.00039.x. PMID 18577163.
  9. Goldenberg RL, Andrews WW, Goepfert AR, Faye-Petersen O, Cliver SP, Carlo WA; et al. (2008). "The Alabama Preterm Birth Study: umbilical cord blood Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis cultures in very preterm newborn infants". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 198 (1): 43.e1–5. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2007.07.033. PMC 2278008. PMID 18166302.
  10. Marovt M, Keše D, Kotar T, Kmet N, Miljković J, Šoba B; et al. (2015). "Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected with the same frequency among women with and without symptoms of urogenital tract infection". Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 34 (6): 1237–45. doi:10.1007/s10096-015-2351-8. PMID 25717022.
  11. Kasprzykowska U, Elias J, Elias M, Mączyńska B, Sobieszczańska BM (2014). "Colonization of the lower urogenital tract with Ureaplasma parvum can cause asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women: a preliminary study". Arch Gynecol Obstet. 289 (5): 1129–34. doi:10.1007/s00404-013-3102-7. PMC 3984420. PMID 24318169.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Povlsen K, Bjørnelius E, Lidbrink P, Lind I (2002). "Relationship of Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 2 to nongonococcal urethritis". Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 21 (2): 97–101. PMID 11939406.
  13. Deguchi T, Yoshida T, Miyazawa T, Yasuda M, Tamaki M, Ishiko H; et al. (2004). "Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) with nongonococcal urethritis". Sex Transm Dis. 31 (3): 192–5. PMID 15076934.
  14. Maeda S, Deguchi T, Ishiko H, Matsumoto T, Naito S, Kumon H; et al. (2004). "Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum (biovar 1) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis using polymerase chain reaction-microtiter plate hybridization". Int J Urol. 11 (9): 750–4. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2004.00887.x. PMID 15379939.
  15. Couldwell DL, Gidding HF, Freedman EV, McKechnie ML, Biggs K, Sintchenko V; et al. (2010). "Ureaplasma urealyticum is significantly associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual Sydney men". Int J STD AIDS. 21 (5): 337–41. doi:10.1258/ijsa.2009.009499. PMID 20498103.
  16. Esen B, Gozalan A, Sevindi DF, Demirbas A, Onde U, Erkayran U; et al. (2017). "Ureaplasma urealyticum: Presence among Sexually Transmitted Diseases". Jpn J Infect Dis. 70 (1): 75–79. doi:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2015.258. PMID 27000449.

Template:WH Template:WS