Typhoid fever secondary prevention

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aysha Aslam, M.B.B.S[2]


There are no established guidelines for secondary prevention of typhoid fever. However, early diagnosis and prompt and adequate treatment—including the administration of antibiotics, good nursing care, maintenance of fluid electrolyte balance, adequate nutrition,[1] steroids in severe cases,[2] and cholecystectomy—may help prevent development of the chronic carrier state.[3]

Secondary prevention

There are no established guidelines for secondary prevention of typhoid fever. However, the following strategies may help reduce progression of the disease and prevent complications in affected individuals:[1][2][3][4]

  • Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with the appropriate antibiotics
  • Good nursing care, including maintenance of a healthy fluid electrolyte balance
  • Adequate nutrition
  • Steroid administration if appropriate
  • Cholecystctomy if necessary to prevent the chronic carrier state


  1. 1.0 1.1 van de Vosse E, Hoeve MA, Ottenhoff TH (2004). "Human genetics of intracellular infectious diseases: molecular and cellular immunity against mycobacteria and salmonellae". Lancet Infect Dis. 4 (12): 739–49. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(04)01203-4. PMID 15567123.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hoffman SL, Punjabi NH, Kumala S, Moechtar MA, Pulungsih SP, Rivai AR; et al. (1984). "Reduction of mortality in chloramphenicol-treated severe typhoid fever by high-dose dexamethasone". N Engl J Med. 310 (2): 82–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM198401123100203. PMID 6361558.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Münnich D, Békési S (1979). "Curing of typhoid carriers by cholecystectomy combined with amoxycillin plus probenecid treatment". Chemotherapy. 25 (6): 362–6. PMID 520079.
  4. Parry CM, Hien TT, Dougan G, White NJ, Farrar JJ (2002). "Typhoid fever". N Engl J Med. 347 (22): 1770–82. doi:10.1056/NEJMra020201. PMID 12456854.