Typhoid fever causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aysha Aslam, M.B.B.S[2]




Other Salmonellae which may cause similar symptoms include:

  • Salmonella Paratyphi A
  • Salmonella Paratyphi B
  • Salmonella Paratyphi C
  • Salmonella choleraesuis

Features of Salmonella Typhi[9][10][11]

  • O polysaccharide antigen
  • H flagellar antigen
  • Vi outer capsular polysaccharide antigen


  1. 1.0 1.1 Arndt MB, Mosites EM, Tian M, Forouzanfar MH, Mokhdad AH, Meller M; et al. (2014). "Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 8 (6): e2925. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002925. PMC 4046978. PMID 24901439.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Maskey AP, Day JN, Phung QT, Thwaites GE, Campbell JI, Zimmerman M; et al. (2006). "Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and S. enterica serovar Typhi cause indistinguishable clinical syndromes in Kathmandu, Nepal". Clin Infect Dis. 42 (9): 1247–53. doi:10.1086/503033. PMID 16586383.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Oboegbulam SI, Oguike JU, Gugnani HC (1995). "Microbiological studies on cases diagnosed as typhoid/enteric fever in south-east Nigeria". J Commun Dis. 27 (2): 97–100. PMID 7499779.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Vollaard AM, Ali S, Widjaja S, Asten HA, Visser LG, Surjadi C; et al. (2005). "Identification of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever cases at presentation in outpatient clinics in Jakarta, Indonesia". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 99 (6): 440–50. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2004.09.012. PMID 15837356.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wain J, Hendriksen RS, Mikoleit ML, Keddy KH, Ochiai RL (2015). "Typhoid fever". Lancet. 385 (9973): 1136–45. PMID [//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25458731 doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62708-7 25458731 doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62708-7] Check |pmid= value (help). line feed character in |pmid= at position 9 (help)
  6. http://www.cdc.gov/typhoid-fever/health-professional.html
  7. Fàbrega, Anna, and Jordi Vila. "Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium skills to succeed in the host: virulence and regulation." Clinical microbiology reviews 26.2 (2013): 308-341.
  8. http://www.cdc.gov/typhoid-fever/health-professional.html
  9. Fàbrega, Anna, and Jordi Vila. "Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium skills to succeed in the host: virulence and regulation." Clinical microbiology reviews 26.2 (2013): 308-341.
  10. Grossman, Daniel A., et al. "Flagellar serotypes of Salmonella typhi in Indonesia: relationships among motility, invasiveness, and clinical illness." Journal of Infectious Diseases 171.1 (1995): 212-216.
  11. Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G (1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochem Pharmacol. 24 (17): 1639–41. PMID 10.1056/NEJMra020201 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra020201 Check |pmid= value (help).

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