Thyroid nodule risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Common risk factors in the development of thyroid nodules include: older age, iodine deficiency, previous history of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism, living in iodine deficient areas, family history of autoimmune diseases, multiparity, and smoking.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of thyroid nodules include:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors

References

  1. Belfiore A, La Rosa GL, La Porta GA, Giuffrida D, Milazzo G, Lupo L, Regalbuto C, Vigneri R (1992). "Cancer risk in patients with cold thyroid nodules: relevance of iodine intake, sex, age, and multinodularity". Am. J. Med. 93 (4): 363–9. PMID 1415299.
  2. Belfiore A, Giuffrida D, La Rosa GL, Ippolito O, Russo G, Fiumara A, Vigneri R, Filetti S (1989). "High frequency of cancer in cold thyroid nodules occurring at young age". Acta Endocrinol. 121 (2): 197–202. PMID 2773619.
  3. MORTENSEN JD, WOOLNER LB, BENNETT WA (1955). "Gross and microscopic findings in clinically normal thyroid glands". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 15 (10): 1270–80. doi:10.1210/jcem-15-10-1270. PMID 13263417.
  4. Knudsen N, Bülow I, Laurberg P, Ovesen L, Perrild H, Jørgensen T (2002). "Association of tobacco smoking with goiter in a low-iodine-intake area". Arch. Intern. Med. 162 (4): 439–43. PMID 11863477.
  5. Valeix P, Faure P, Bertrais S, Vergnaud AC, Dauchet L, Hercberg S (2008). "Effects of light to moderate alcohol consumption on thyroid volume and thyroid function". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 68 (6): 988–95. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.03123.x. PMID 18031329.
  6. Rossing MA, Voigt LF, Wicklund KG, Daling JR (2000). "Reproductive factors and risk of papillary thyroid cancer in women". Am. J. Epidemiol. 151 (8): 765–72. PMID 10965973.
  7. Antonelli A, Ferri C, Fallahi P, Pampana A, Ferrari SM, Barani L, Marchi S, Ferrannini E (2007). "Thyroid cancer in HCV-related chronic hepatitis patients: a case-control study". Thyroid. 17 (5): 447–51. doi:10.1089/thy.2006.0194. PMID 17542674.
  8. Völzke H, Friedrich N, Schipf S, Haring R, Lüdemann J, Nauck M, Dörr M, Brabant G, Wallaschofski H (2007). "Association between serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels and thyroid disorders in a population-based study". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92 (10): 4039–45. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-0816. PMID 17666480.
  9. Spinos N, Terzis G, Crysanthopoulou A, Adonakis G, Markou KB, Vervita V, Koukouras D, Tsapanos V, Decavalas G, Kourounis G, Georgopoulos NA (2007). "Increased frequency of thyroid nodules and breast fibroadenomas in women with uterine fibroids". Thyroid. 17 (12): 1257–9. doi:10.1089/thy.2006.0330. PMID 17988198.
  10. Knudsen N, Bülow I, Laurberg P, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Jørgensen T (2002). "Low goitre prevalence among users of oral contraceptives in a population sample of 3712 women". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 57 (1): 71–6. PMID 12100072.
  11. Cappelli C, Castellano M, Pirola I, De Martino E, Gandossi E, Delbarba A, Salvi A, Rosei EA (2008). "Reduced thyroid volume and nodularity in dyslipidaemic patients on statin treatment". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 68 (1): 16–21. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02982.x. PMID 17666091.
  12. Lupoli G, Vitale G, Caraglia M, Fittipaldi MR, Abbruzzese A, Tagliaferri P, Bianco AR (1999). "Familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a new clinical entity". Lancet. 353 (9153): 637–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)08004-0. PMID 10030330.
  13. Cohen A, Rovelli A, Merlo DF, van Lint MT, Lanino E, Bresters D, Ceppi M, Bocchini V, Tichelli A, Socié G (2007). "Risk for secondary thyroid carcinoma after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: an EBMT Late Effects Working Party Study". J. Clin. Oncol. 25 (17): 2449–54. doi:10.1200/JCO.2006.08.9276. PMID 17557958.

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