Thyroid nodule risk factors
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Common risk factors in the development of thyroid nodules include: older age, iodine deficiency, previous history of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism, living in iodine deficient areas, family history of autoimmune diseases, multiparity, and smoking.
Common Risk Factors
- Hard nodule
- Nodule that stuck to nearby structures
- Family history of thyroid cancer
- Younger than 20 or older than 70 years
- As thyroid nodularity increases with age, presence of thyroid nodule in a children is twice more likely to be a cancer than in adults
- History of radiation exposure to the head or neck
- Either externally from therapeutic X-radiation or internally through treatment with radioactive iodine (131I) and possibly radioactive fallout (131I)
- As an example, ground nuclear bomb testing in Nevada in the 1950s led to a meaningful increase in thyroid cancer incidence
- History of radiation treatment to the head and neck region, for example for treatment purposes is associated with an increased incidence of thyroid nodularity and cancer:
- Male gender
- Alcohol consumption
- Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels
- Increased parity and late age at first pregnancy
- Hepatitis C-related chronic hepatitis (odds ratio 12.2 in one report)
- Decreased serum TSH levels in women
Less Common Risk Factors
- Less common risk factors in the development of thyroid nodules include:
- Oral contraceptive use
- Use of statins
- Associated with a reduced risk of nodules on ultrasound
- Reduced prevalence, number and volume of thyroid nodules
- A history of papillary thyroid cancer in at least one first-degree family member is associated with an increased risk of a nodule being malignant
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increases the relative risk (RR) for thyroid cancer to 3.26; if transplantation occurred prior to age 10, the RR was 24.6.
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- Knudsen N, Bülow I, Laurberg P, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Jørgensen T (2002). "Low goitre prevalence among users of oral contraceptives in a population sample of 3712 women". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 57 (1): 71–6. PMID 12100072.
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- Lupoli G, Vitale G, Caraglia M, Fittipaldi MR, Abbruzzese A, Tagliaferri P, Bianco AR (1999). "Familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a new clinical entity". Lancet. 353 (9153): 637–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)08004-0. PMID 10030330.
- Cohen A, Rovelli A, Merlo DF, van Lint MT, Lanino E, Bresters D, Ceppi M, Bocchini V, Tichelli A, Socié G (2007). "Risk for secondary thyroid carcinoma after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: an EBMT Late Effects Working Party Study". J. Clin. Oncol. 25 (17): 2449–54. doi:10.1200/JCO.2006.08.9276. PMID 17557958.