Thyroid nodule epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mahshid Mir, M.D. [2]

Overview

Worldwide, the incidence of thyroid nodule ranges from as low of 40,000 per 100,000 persons to a high of 71,000 per 100,000 persons with an average incidence of 50,000 per 100,000 persons. The incidence of thyroid cancer is estimated to be a total number of 48,288 cases annually in United states. Thyroid nodules are common, their prevalence being largely dependent on the identification method, as sensitivity and specificity of different methods for thyroid nodule diagnosis varies. In United States, the prevalence of thyroid nodule detected by palpation alone ranges from a low of 2,000 per 100,000 persons to a high of 6,000 per 100,000 persons, while the prevalence of thyroid nodule detected by ultrasound ranges from a low of 20,000 per 100,000 persons to a high of 35,000 per 100,000 persons. Worldwide, the prevalence of palpable thyroid nodule is approximately 5,000 per 100,000 in women and 1,000 per 100,000 in men living in iodine-sufficient parts of the world, and the prevalence of ultrasound detected thyroid nodules ranges from as low as 19,000 per 100,000 to as high as 68,000 per 100,000. Thyroid nodules commonly affects individuals younger than 20 and older than 50 years of age. Females are more commonly affected with thyroid nodules than males.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

  • Worldwide, the incidence of thyroid nodule ranges from as low of 40,000 per 100,000 persons to a high of 71,000 per 100,000 persons with an average incidence of 50,000 per 100,000 persons.[1][2]
  • The risk for malignancy in asymptomatic nodules found in non-irradiated glands is 0.45% to 13% (mean +/- SD = 3.9% +/- 4.1%), which means the incidence of malignant thyroid nodule ranges from as low as 250 per 100,000 persons to as high as 7000 per 100,000 persons approximately.[1][2]
  • The incidence of thyroid cancer is estimated to be a total number of 48,288 cases annually in United states.
  • There is a large increase worldwide in the incidence of thyroid cancers. It is likely to be due to:[1][2]

Prevalence

Thyroid nodules are common, their prevalence being largely dependent on the identification method, as sensitivity and specificity of different methods for thyroid nodule diagnosis varies.[3]

United States

  • In United States, the prevalence of thyroid nodule detected by palpation alone ranges from a low of 2,000 per 100,000 persons to a high of 6,000 per 100,000 persons, while the prevalence of thyroid nodule detected by ultrasound ranges from a low of 20,000 per 100,000 persons to a high of 35,000 per 100,000 persons.[4]
  • In United States, the prevalence of thyroid nodule detected by surgery or autopsy ranges from a low of 50,000 per 100,000 persons to a high of 65,000 per 100,000 persons, that correlate more with the prevalence detected by ultrasound.[5]
  • In the United States, 4 to 7 percent of the adult population have a palpable thyroid nodule.[6][5]

Worldwide

Worldwide, the prevalence of palpable thyroid nodule is approximately 5,000 per 100,000 in women and 1,000 per 100,000 in men living in iodine-sufficient parts of the world, and the prevalence of ultrasound detected thyroid nodules ranges from as low as 19,000 per 100,000 to as high as 68,000 per 100,000. [5][6]

Race

Age

  • Thyroid nodules commonly affects individuals younger than 20 and older than 50 years of age.[2]
  • There is no association between the thyroid cancer development in a previous patient with the thyroid nodule and the age. [8][9]

Sex

Developed and Developing Countries

  • Although goiter is more prevalent in iodine deficient and developing countries, there are insufficient data regarding association of thyroid nodules and the country of residence.[10][11]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Davies L, Welch HG (2014). "Current thyroid cancer trends in the United States". JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140 (4): 317–22. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2014.1. PMID 24557566.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Vaccarella S, Franceschi S, Bray F, Wild CP, Plummer M, Dal Maso L (2016). "Worldwide Thyroid-Cancer Epidemic? The Increasing Impact of Overdiagnosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 375 (7): 614–7. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1604412. PMID 27532827.
  3. Singer PA, Cooper DS, Daniels GH, Ladenson PW, Greenspan FS, Levy EG, Braverman LE, Clark OH, McDougall IR, Ain KV, Dorfman SG (1996). "Treatment guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and well-differentiated thyroid cancer. American Thyroid Association". Arch. Intern. Med. 156 (19): 2165–72. PMID 8885814.
  4. Dean DS, Gharib H (2008). "Epidemiology of thyroid nodules". Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 22 (6): 901–11. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2008.09.019. PMID 19041821.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Davies L, Randolph G (2014). "Evidence-based evaluation of the thyroid nodule". Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 47 (4): 461–74. doi:10.1016/j.otc.2014.04.008. PMID 25041951.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Mazzaferri EL (1993). "Management of a solitary thyroid nodule". N. Engl. J. Med. 328 (8): 553–9. doi:10.1056/NEJM199302253280807. PMID 8426623.
  7. Vaccarella S, Dal Maso L, Laversanne M, Bray F, Plummer M, Franceschi S (2015). "The Impact of Diagnostic Changes on the Rise in Thyroid Cancer Incidence: A Population-Based Study in Selected High-Resource Countries". Thyroid. 25 (10): 1127–36. doi:10.1089/thy.2015.0116. PMID 26133012.
  8. Corrias A, Einaudi S, Chiorboli E, Weber G, Crinò A, Andreo M, Cesaretti G, de Sanctis L, Messina MF, Segni M, Cicchetti M, Vigone M, Pasquino AM, Spera S, de Luca F, Mussa GC, Bona G (2001). "Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules in detecting malignancy in childhood: comparison with conventional clinical, laboratory, and imaging approaches". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 (10): 4644–8. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.10.7950. PMID 11600519.
  9. Vasudev V, A L H, B R, S G (2014). "Efficacy and Pitfalls of FNAC of Thyroid Lesions in Children and Adolescents". J Clin Diagn Res. 8 (1): 35–8. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/6718.3913. PMC 3939581. PMID 24596718. Vancouver style error: name (help)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Hegedüs L, Bonnema SJ, Bennedbaek FN (2003). "Management of simple nodular goiter: current status and future perspectives". Endocr. Rev. 24 (1): 102–32. doi:10.1210/er.2002-0016. PMID 12588812.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Wong CK, Wheeler MH (2000). "Thyroid nodules: rational management". World J Surg. 24 (8): 934–41. PMID 10865037.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Mathur A, Olson MT, Zeiger MA (2014). "Follicular lesions of the thyroid". Surg. Clin. North Am. 94 (3): 499–513. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2014.02.005. PMID 24857573.

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