Third degree AV block risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Zand, M.D.[2] Soroush Seifirad, M.D.[3] Aditya Ganti M.B.B.S. [4]


Common risk factors associated atioventricular block include older age, male sex, history of myocardial infarction, history of congestive heart disease, high systolic blood pressure, increased fasting blood glucose level.

Risk Factors

  • Common risk factors associated with PPM implantation after valve surgery include:[4]


  1. Kerola T, Eranti A, Aro AL, Haukilahti MA, Holkeri A, Junttila MJ; et al. (2019). "Risk Factors Associated With Atrioventricular Block". JAMA Netw Open. 2 (5): e194176. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4176. PMC 6632153 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 31125096.
  2. Bougioukas I, Jebran AF, Grossmann M, Friedrich M, Tirilomis T, Schoendube FA, Danner BC (January 2017). "Is there a correlation between late re-exploration after cardiac surgery and removal of epicardial pacemaker wires?". J Cardiothorac Surg. 12 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/s13019-017-0569-5. PMC 5264443. PMID 28122567.
  3. Unnikrishnan D, Idris N, Varshneya N (November 2003). "Complete heart block during central venous catheter placement in a patient with pre-existing left bundle branch block". Br J Anaesth. 91 (5): 747–9. doi:10.1093/bja/aeg242. PMID 14570803.
  4. Goldman BS, Hill TJ, Weisel RD, Scully HE, Mickleborough LL, Pym J, Baird RJ (May 1984). "Permanent cardiac pacing after open-heart surgery: acquired heart disease". Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 7 (3 Pt 1): 367–71. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.1984.tb04919.x. PMID 6204288.

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