Status epilepticus

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zehra Malik, M.B.B.S[2]

Synonyms and Keywords:

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Status epilepticus from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • The incidence of status epilepticus is approximately 7 to 40 cases per 100,000/year.
  • Status epilepticus seems to be more common in male.

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

  • Common complications of status epilepticus include cardiac dysrhythmia, metabolic derangements, autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and aspiration pneumonia. [1]
  • Permanent neurologic damage can occur with prolonged status epilepticus.
  • Prognosis of status epilepticus depends upon the underlying cause, age, and medical condition of the patient. Overall mortality rate of status epilepticus is 7%–39%.[2]
  • Approximately 10 to 30% of patients with underlying brain condition who have status epilepticus die within 30 days.[3]
  • Patients with epilepsy and who develop status epilepticus have increased mortality risk. However, stabilizing condition and optimal maintenance of medication, sleep, stress factors and stimulants plays an important role in improving prognosis. [4]

Treatments

  1. Sutter, Raoul; Dittrich, Tolga; Semmlack, Saskia; Rüegg, Stephan; Marsch, Stephan; Kaplan, Peter W. (2018). "Acute Systemic Complications of Convulsive Status Epilepticus—A Systematic Review". Critical Care Medicine. 46 (1): 138–145. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000002843. ISSN 0090-3493.
  2. Towne, Alan R.; Pellock, John M.; Ko, Daijin; DeLorenzo, Robert J. (1994). "Determinants of Mortality in Status Epilepticus". Epilepsia. 35 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1994.tb02908.x. ISSN 0013-9580.
  3. Al-Mufti, Fawaz; Claassen, Jan (2014). "Neurocritical Care". Critical Care Clinics. 30 (4): 751–764. doi:10.1016/j.ccc.2014.06.006. ISSN 0749-0704.
  4. Stasiukynienė, Virginija; Pilvinis, Vidas; Reingardienė, Dagmara; Janauskaitė, Liuda (2009). "Epileptic seizures in critically ill patients". Medicina. 45 (6): 501. doi:10.3390/medicina45060066. ISSN 1010-660X.